IB Chemistry Option D

What are the effects of medicines and drugs on the functioning of the body?
They can alter the physiological state of the body, alter incoming sensory sensations, or alter mood or emotions.
What are the stages involved in the research, development, and testing of new pharmaceutical products?
1. Identify the disease.
2. Identify a target, such as a gene or enzyme that is necessary for the disease to progress.
3. Identify a lead molecule that can act on the target.
4. Preclinical trials (in vitro and in vivo testing)
5. Clinical trials (on people, compare with placebo effect)
6. File application to drug administration.
7. Monitoring of the drug after released to the public.
What are the different methods of administering drugs?
Oral, Parenteral, Inhalation, Rectal, Skin Patches
Name and describe 3 types of injection.
1. intravenous (into a vein, used for immediate impact)
2. intramuscular (into the muscles, used for vaccines, anaesthetics, or when a large dose is needed)
3. subcutaneous (into the skin under the cutis/dermis and epidermis, used for dental injections, morphine, and insulin, and is slow)
What is the therapeutic window of a drug?
The range in concentration over which a drug can be safely administered to a typical population. It is the ratio of the LD-50 to the ED-50.
What is tolerance?
More of a drug is needed to have the same physiological effect over time.
What are side effects?
Any unintended effects. They can be beneficial, benign, or adverse.
What is the placebo effect?
It is the effect of believing a medicine will work. It is used as a control in clinical trials to determine the effectiveness of a drug.
What are advantages and disadvantages of oral administration?
Advantages: It is easy to take and requires no special equipment.
Disadvantages: It is slow to take effect, the stomach can decompose or change medicines, and it can cause stomach bleeding.
When are injections the best method of administration?
1. When an immediate effect is needed
2. When the effect is needed on the whole body
3. When direct delivery to the area is needed
4. When the medicine will be broken down by the stomach
How can excess acidity in the stomach be reduced by the use of different bases?
By adding antacids such as aluminum hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide, and sodium hydrogencarbonate, OH- and HCO3- ions can neutralize the H+ in the acid to form water and salt.
Why are alginates added to antacids?
They produce a neutralizing layer on top of the stomach contents and thus prevents stomach acid from entering the esophagus and causing heartburn.
Why are anti-foaming agents added to antacids that have carbonate in them?
They reduce the bloating of the stomach as a result of carbon dioxide production.
What is an example of an anti-foaming agent?
How do mild analgesics prevent pain?
They interfere with the production of substances like prostaglandins that are produced by injured tissues and that cause pain, swelling, and fever.
How do strong analgesics prevent pain?
They temporarily bond to receptor sites to block pain impulses in the brain or spinal cord (blocks signal without depressing the central nervous system).
What are some examples of mild analgesics?
aspirin, paracetamol, ibuprofen
What are some examples of strong analgesics?
codeine, morphine, heroin
What are the advantages of using aspirin?
1. It is an antipyretic (reduces fever).
2. It can prevent heart attacks, strokes, and thins the blood/reduces clotting.
3. It is anti-inflammatory.
What are the advantages of using paracetamol?
1. It is an antipyretic (reduces fever).
2. Does not upset the stomach or cause bleeding.
3. Suitable for children
What are the disadvantages of using paracetamol?
1. Can cause blood disorders and kidney damage
2. Easier to overdose – can lead to liver failure
3. Not a good anti-inflammatory
What do the structures of morphine, codeine, and heroin have in common?
All have a benzene (aromatic) ring, a tertiary amine, a double bond, and an ether group.
How are the structures of morphine, codeine, and heroin different?
Morphine has to hydroxyl (alcohol) groups, Codeine has an extra ether group, and heroin has 2 ester groups
What are the advantages of using morphine and its derivatives?
1. can relieve extreme pain
2. wide therapeutic window
3. relieves anxiety
4. induces relaxation
5. can be administered intravenously, which results in faster distribution
What are the disadvantages of using morphine and its derivatives?
1. euphoria (creates a lack of self-control)
2. kidney failure
3. addiction, leading to withdrawal
4. tolarance, leading to a lethal dose
5. social problems (crime, job loss, infections like AIDS)
What are the effects of a low, moderate, high, and very high dose of depressant?
low – little or no effect
moderate – sedation, soothing, reduced anxiety, impaired judgement
high – sleep, unconsciousness, slurred speech, altered perception
very high – organ failure, coma, death
What are the social effects of alcohol use/abuse?
1. increased risk when driving
2. violence or crime
3. relationship problems
4. taking time off work (due to sickness)
5. loss of income
6. hospital costs
7. lower economic production
What are the short-term physiological effects of alcohol use/abuse?
1. reduced tension, anxiety, and inhibitions
2. impaired function of central nervous system
3. dehydration
4. vomiting or unconsciousness (high dose)
What are the long-term physiological effects of alcohol use/abuse?
1. liver damage
2. cancer
3. cirrhosis (liver disease)
4. increased blood pressure
5. heart disease or stroke
6. miscarriage and fetal abnormalities
7. tolerance and addiction
What is the synergistic effect of using alcohol with other drugs?
The effect of other drugs is enhanced in the presence of alcohol (with aspirin it can increase stomach damage, with sleeping tablets/other sedatives it can cause coma or death)
How is potassium dichromate used to detect alcohol?
In a breathalyzer, a positive result will show a change of its color from orange to green as ethanol is present.
How does an intoximeter detect alcohol?
Infrared ratiation is passed through breath, blood, or urine sample. The C-H bond in ethanol will absorb radiation, and the intoximeter will measure the the amount of absorption. The more ethanol is present, the more absorption occurs. The amount (peak) is compared against a standard.
How does chromatography help to detect alcohol?
Ethanol is separated from the blood or urine, the area under the ethanol peak on a chromatogram indicates the amount of ethanol in blood or urine.
What are some common depressants?
alcohol, Valium, Prozac, Mogadon
Describe the structure of Prozac.
aromatic benzene ring, ether, fluorine, amine, chloride ion
Describe the structure of Valium.
amide, aromatic benzene ring, secondary amine, chlorine
Describe the structure of Mogadon.
amide, aromatic benzene ring, secondary amine, NO2
What are the short term physiological effects of stimulants?
1. increased heart rate, blood pressure, breathing rate
2. dilation of pupils
3. constriction of arteries
4. sweating
5. increased alertness and concentration
6. decreased appetite
7. stimulating effects
What are the long term physiological effects of stimulants?
1. increased risk of heart disease
2. increased blood pressure
3. coronary thrombosis (blood clots in the heart)
4. stomach ulcers
5. tolarance
What are amphetamines?
They mimic the effects of epinephrine/adrenaline, stimulating the sympathetic nervous system. (They are therefore known as sympathomimetic drugs).
What do the structure of amphetamines and epinephrine have in common?
An aromatic benzene ring and an alkyl chain.
What is different in the structures of amphetamines and epinephrine?
Amphetamines – primary amine
Epinephrine – 3 hydroxyl groups and a secondary amine
What are the short term effects of nicotine?
1. increased heart rate
2. increased blood pressure
3. reduced urine output
4. increased concentration
What are the long term effects of nicotine?
1. increased risk of cancer or stroke
2. heart disease / thrombosis
3. stomach ulcers
4. emphysema (a type of COPD)
5. bronchitis
6. shortage of breath
7. coughing
8. bad breath
9. yellowing of teeth or fingers
10. adverse effect on pregnancy
11. addiction
12. reduction in capacity of blood to carry oxygen
13. withdrawal symptoms/weight gain (upon quitting)
What are the effects of caffeine?
It is a stimulant. It can cause anxiety, irritability, and sleeplessness. It is a weak diuretic.
Compare the structures of caffeine and nicotine.
Both – aromatic benzene ring, tertiary amine
caffeine – 3 tertiary amine groups total, 2 carbonyl groups
What contribution did Alexander Fleming make to the development of penicillin?
Discovered that penicillin inhibited growth / killed bacteria.
What contribution did Florey and Chain make to the development of penicillin?
1. overcame problems associated with isolating penicillin as Penicillin G 2. showed that penicillin is harmless and effective on mice 3. first to use penicillin on a human 4. grew penicillin in large amounts
How does penicillin work?
It interferes with the chemicals that bacteria need to form a cell wall, preventing the formation of cross-links within the cell wall. The bacteria then absorbs too much water and bursts as a result of increased osmotic pressure.
What are the advantages of modifying the side-chain of penicillin?
1. resistance to penicillinase enzyme that can break down penicillin G (reduces bacterial resistance)
2. resistance to breakdown by stomach acid (can be taken orally)
What is patient compliance?
Patients taking antibacterials as prescribed (taking all tablets in the correct dose)
Why is patient compliance important?
If they are not compliant, it allows bacteria to develop resistance.
What are the effects of overprescription of antibacterials?
1. resistant bacteria may have the chance to reproduce and pass on resistance
2. useful bacteria may be killed
How are viruses different from bacteria?
1. not self-reproducing (need a host cell in which to insert DNA)
2. lack metabolic functions (do not grow, feed, or excreet)
3. consist of only genetic material and protective coating
4. smaller than bacteria
5. faster mutation and multiplication
What are 4 different ways in which antivirals work?
1. altering the host cell’s genetic material so the virus cannot use it to multiply
2. preventing multiplication by blocking enzyme activity within the host cell
3. preventing viruses from entering the host cell and binding to cellular receptors targeted by the viruses
4. preventing the release of viruses from the cell
What difficulties are associated with solving the AIDS problem?
1. mutates rapidly
2. drugs can damage host cell
3. high price of antiviral drugs
4. socioeconomic and cultural issues