IB Option D

Line of defense against disease
Barriers: Skin, Mucus membranes, closures and openings of natural openings (lips, eyelids)

Attack invaders: White blood cells, blood clotting, the inflammatory response

Immune System: White blood cells produce antibodies, memory cells enable the body to fight repeat infections

How do we fight diseases
Maximize effectiveness of the body’s natural defense through drugs. Medicines supplement or natural healing process
Drugs
A chemical that effects how the body works (for better or for worse)
Medicine
A substance that improves health (natural or synthetic)
Therapeutic effect
beneficial effect of medicines
Drugs effects on the body
alterations of psych. state (consciusness), alteration of incoming sensation, alteration of mood or emotions
Therapeutic Window
LD50/ED50
LD50
Lethal dose to kill 50% of the population
ED50
Effective dose needed to show change on 50% of the population
Process of pharmaceutical company
Research, development, testing
Placebo effect
Use of an inert pill in clinical tests in order to increase reliability of test (sugar pill)
Side effect
an effect that is not intended
Tolerance
the physiological response to the body adapting to the action of the drug
Dependence
Physical ( a drug user’s body becomes accustomed to a drug that it can only function normally when the drug is present)

Physiological(when a drug is so central to a person’s thoughts)

Subcutaneous
Local anesthetics(dental); injected directly under the skin
intramuscular
Vaccines; into the muscle
Intravenous
most rapid effect; directly into blood stream
Other methods of administration
mouth (oral); inhalation; rectal
dyspesia
indigestion (excess HCl)
Treatment of indigestion
simple bases (metal oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and hydrogencarbonates)
How do antacids works?
neutralizing the acid, preventing inflammation, relieve pain and discomfort
Side effects of antacids
Magnesium can cause diarrhea; aluminum=constipation; absorption of phosphate can cause bone damage
alginate
prevent heartburn
anti-foaming agenTS
Prevent flatulence (most usual is dimethicone)
analgesic
pain killer/fever reducer
mild analgesic
intercepts pain at the source (prevents prostaglandin from being formed at the site of an injury or pain)
strong analgesic
block pain receptors in the brain
Aspirin
Side effect: stomach bleeding, Reye’s disease in children; acidosis
ester group; caroxylic acid group
Common strong analgesic
Morphine (poppy) , Codeine (natural), demerol (synthetic), heroin (poppy).
Opiates have…
ketone group and an amine group
Short term effect of opiates
Induce feeling of euphoria, dulling of pain, depress nervous system, slow breathing and heart rate, cough reflex inhibited, nausea and vomiting, high doses:Coma or death
Long term effect of opiates
Constipation, lose sex drive, disrupts menstrul cycle, poor eating habits, Rick of diseases via shared needles, social problem
depressants
depress the central nervous system by interferring the transmission of nerve impulses in the nerve cells. Slow does the functions of the body
Short term effects of alcohol
relaxtions, confidence, increase sociability, dialtes small blood vessels in the eyes, impairs judgement and concentration, speech is slurred, loss of balance, loss of consciousness, death from inhalation of vomit.
Long term effects of alcohol
liver damage (cancer and cirrhosis), coronary heart disease, high blood pressure, strokes, risk of dimentia, miscarriage during pregnancy, delirum tremens (severe shakes)
Synergistic effects of alcohol
depresses the central nervous system
Detection of alcohol in breath
acidified potassium dichromate crystams turn to Cr3+ in the presence of alcohol
Infrared toximeter
C-H bonds, compared to 100cm^ of non-breath
Stimulants
Chemically related to adrenaline (fight or flight hormone). “One which mimics the effect of stimulation on the sympathetic nervous system (sympathomimetic drug).
Short term effect of stimulants
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