Inorganic Chemistry

What is the order of the scientific method?
observation, empirical facts(data) collected, summarize in scientific laws, hypothesis, and theories
What are molecules?
particles that contain 2 or more atoms
What are physical properties?
can be measured without altering chemical composition
Which is dependent on sample size: intesive or extensive properties?
extensive properties are depenedent
What is a compound?
elements combined in fixed proportions
What is a one-phase mixture?
a solution and is homogenous
What is Dalton’s atomic theory?
atoms may change partners, but can neither be created or destroyed
What is another name for the Group 1A elements?
alkali metals
What is another name for GroupIIA?
alkaline earth metals
What is another name for group VIIA?
halogens
What is another name for VIIIA(18)
noble gases
What is an isotope?
atoms of the same element with different atomic masses. Atoms of the same element with different numbers of NEUTRONS in their nuclei.

What are the four diatomic molecules?

H2,O2, N2, Cl2

What are hydrates?
solids that contain water molecules in definite proportions
What does aqueous solution mean?
dissolved in water
What can all forms of energy be converted into?
heat
What is heat?
energy that is transferred between objects because of their difference in temp.
What is the definition of temperature?
a measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms in an object
How are molecules held together?
with chemical bonds
Which measurements require numerical measurements: qualitative or quantitative?
quantitative
How do u calculate specific gravity?
the density of the substance divided by the density of water
What is Avogadro’s number?
6.022 X 10^23
What is formula mass? What is another name for it?
the sum of the atomic masses of all the atoms appearing in a chemical formula (molecular mass)
What is an empirical formula? What type of compounds is it written for?
gives the ratio of atoms in the smallest whole numbers – used for ionic compounds
What is limiting reactant?
a reactant taken in a quantity less than reuired by another reactant, as told by the stoichiometry
What is the actual yield of a product?
how much is isolated in moles or mass units (measured quantity)
What is the theorectical yield of a product?
what must be obtained if no losses occur (calculated quantity)
What is the percentage yield?
actual yield divided by the theoretical yield all multiplied by 100
What are characteristics of unsaturated solutions?
unstable and tend to givce precipitate
What is the def. of solubility?
the amount of solute required to give a saturated solution at a given temperature
If a concentrated solution of a known molarity was going to be dilluted quantitatively, what relationship applies?
V1 X M1 = V2 X M2
What are electrolytes?
substances that dissociate or ionize in water to produce cations and ions
What are strong electrolytes?
ionic compounds that ocmpletely dissociate into ions in water
What do you elimanate in a net ionic equation?
spectator ions
What is an ionic or net ionic equation balanced?
when both the atoms and net charge are balanced
What do acidic anhydrides do?
react wit water to give acids
What is produced wen acids react with bases in neutralization reactions?
salt and water
Salts are strong __________.
electrolytes
What is a titration used for?
to make quantitative measurements of the amounts of solutions needed to obtain a complete reation
How is the endpoint of a titration normally indicated?
by the acid-base indicator
What happens to the electrons in oxidation?
they are lost or increase in oxidation number
What happens to electrons in a reduction?
they are gained… oxidation number goes down
What is the substance oxidized called?
reducing agent
What is the substance reduced called?
oxidizing agent
WWhat is the definition of oxidation?
an algebraic increase in oxidation number
What is the definition of reduction?
a decrease in oxidation number
In non-oxidizing acids, what is the strongest oxidizing agent?
H+
What is combustion?
the rapid reaction of a substance with oxygen
What is often used in redox titrations? y?
potassium permaganate… powerful oxidizing agent
What happens to heat when the system is exothermic?
the heat leaves the system
Define pressure.
the ratio of force applied to the area over which it is applied
What is the first law of thermodynamics?
no matter how the change in energy accompanying a reaction may be allocated between q and w, their sum is the same, (change in )E……… (change in)E = q + w
What is the algebraic sign for q and w when the system gives off heat or does work on surroundings?
negative
When the system absorbs heat or receives work energy done to it, what is the sign?
positive
What are ionic bonds?
forces of attraction between positive and negative ions
What is lattice energy?
the energy required to completely separate the ions of an ionic compound