Inorganic Final Review

How to balance a redox reaction

  1. Separate into ox and red half-reactions
  2. Mass balance
  3. Add oxygen by adding H2O
  4. Balance oxygen with H+
  5. Add electrons to balance charges on both sides
  6. Multiply both sides by opposite number of electrons
  7. Add half-reactions together
  8. IF IN BASIC SOLUTION- add OH to neutralize H+ on both sides (so H2O will be on one side, OH on the other)

E0 cell=
E0redn -E0oxidn
Bond Order (molecular orbital theory)

# electrons in bonding orb’s – # electrons in antibonding

2

6 strong acids
HI, HBr, HCl, H2SO4, HNO3, HClO4
What makes a strong acid a strong acid?
Completely dissociates in aqueous solution
Difference between strong acid/weak acid rxns and strong base/weak base rxns
Use a –> for strong acids/ bases because they dissociate/associate completely.  Use <==> for weak acids and bases since they have an equilibrium
Dissociation of HOAc in water
H+ + OAc
Spectator ions: cations and anions

Cations: Group I and IIA

Anions: Bases of strong acids

strong bases (yield weak acids when you add a proton)
NH2, O-2, S-2
Acid strength: bond polarity

In H-X bonds, the more polar the bond is (more electronegative X is) then the stronger the acid

(F>O>N)

Strength of acids: bond strength

Weaker bond –> better acid

as size increases, bond strength decreases, acid strength increases

Strength of oxyacids
More oxygens (higher oxidation state of Y in HO-Y), then stronger acid
Acid strength: metal ions

Smaller the metal with the same charge, stronger acid

Co+3 is smaller than Fe+3, so stronger acid

Acid strength: substituents
Electron withdrawing (electronegative (CF3)) are stronger acids
Base strength: sterics

If there are too many big ligands on a base, then it will become less basic

This can compensate for base strengthening effects, such as addition of methyl groups (which donate electrons)


Hard acids (14)

Small with large positive charge ( mostly +3 or larger)

H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Be+2, Mg+2, Ba+2, Al+3, Me3Al, AlCl3, Cr+3, Mn+2, Fe+3, Co+3

Soft bases (9)

More electrons and larger size

I, H2S, HS, S-2, SCN, CN, CO, PR3, R3As

Soft acids (7)
BH3, Cu+, Ag+, Au+, Pd+2, Pt+2, Pd+4 
Hard bases (10)
F, Cl, H2O, OH, O-2, NO3, ClO4, NH3, RHN2, N2H4

Bigger oxidation state:

Bigger size:

Bigger oxidation state: hard

Bigger size: soft

Molecular Orbital Diagram
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