Inorganic- Test 4 review

Labile
Half-life shorter than one minute
Inert
Half-life slower than one minute
Stable
Low K value (eq constant)
Unstable
High K (eq constant)
Thermodynamic terms
Stable and unstable
Kinetic terms
Labile and inert
Dissociative

Ligand leaves

Intermediate has a lower coordination number

Associative

Incoming ligand joins complex

Intermediate has higher coordination number

Effect of nucleophile concentration on dissociative reaction

no effect

rate = k[M]

Effect of nucleophile concentration on associative reaction

Dependent

Rate = k[M][Nuc]

faster with higher nucleopile concentration

Effect of sterics of nucleophile on dissociative mechanism
no effect
Effect of sterics of nucleophile on associative mechanism
Slower with bulkier ligands
Effect of sterics of LG on dissociative mechanism
Faster with bulky LG
Effect of sterics of LG on associative mechanism
Slower or no effect with bulkier LG
Effect of bond strength of LG on dissociative mechanism
Strong bond goes slower
Effect of bond strength of LG on associative mechanism
no effect
ΔH of dissociative

endothermic

ΔH is +

ΔS of dissociative

More disordered

ΔS is +

ΔH of associative

exothermic

ΔH is –

ΔS of associative

More ordered

ΔS is –

Trans effect definition
Incoming ligand goes trans to whichever ligand is higher on the trans effect spectrum
Inner-sphere

Bridged complex

Rate of electron exchange is slower than ligand exchange

Sometimes ligand exchanges

Outer-sphere

Rate of electron exchange can be faster than ligand exchange

All molecules need to do is bounce into each other

Ionic forces

Strongest

Between atoms and between molecules

Hydrogen bonding

Second strongest

stronger dipole-dipole bond

H bonds to N, O or F

  • 3 smallest, most electronegative elements in periodic table

Dipole-dipole
Polar compounds
London dispersion forces

least strong

instantaneous dipole-induced dipole

dipole created at one molecule induces short-lived dipole on the other molecule

Triple point

all three phases in equilibrium

intersection of three lines

Critical point
No difference between gas or liquid phase (plasma)
FP decrease
ΔT= kf x molality
BP elevation
ΔT = kb x molality
Molality
the number of moles of solute per kilogram of solvent (not solution)
Strength of intermolecular forces

  1. Ionic
  2. Hydrogen bonding
  3. Dipole-dipole
  4. London forces

Solubility of different carboned alcohols in water

Solubility decreases as number of carbons increases

Once you get to 6 carbons, London forces start to dominate and they become insoluble

Ionic solvents dissolve…
endothermically
Li has ___ NRG of hydration
exothermic
Ideal gas law
PV=nRT
Ideal gas law to find density
(g/vol)=(P x MW)/(RT)
4 conclusions of Kinetic Molecular Theory

  1. Average kinetic NRG of molecules is proportional to temperature (K)
  2. Gases consist of molecules whose separation is larger than the molecules themselves
  3. Molecules are in continuous random rapid motion
  4. Molecules collide with each other and with the walls of the flask, without loss of energy

Diffusion rate
proportional to 1/√MW

Simple cube

  • full atoms
  • length of side
  • volume

1  full atom (1/8 x 8)

L= 2r

V=8r3

# atoms per unit cell of BCC

2 full atoms

 

FCC

  • # atoms per unit cell
  • relationship between r and L

4 atoms per unit cell

L= 2.8r

x

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