Intermolecular forces

the state of matter of a substance is determined by…
intermolecular forces(attractive forces)
name the three types of intermolecular forces from weakest to strongest.
london dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, hydrogen bonding.
polar molecules have a _____ difference in electronegativity between atoms.
Large
The large difference in electronegativity between atoms in polar molecules creates
partial charges
london dispersion forces have neutral atoms because
the number of protons equals the number of electrons
london dispersion force-
the force of attraction between two neighboring temporary dipoles.
one dipole can cause a neighboring atom to turn into a dipole, called an
induced dipole.
dipole-dipole forces
attraction between neighboring permanent dipoles.
dipole-dipole forces result from
permanenet dipoles
hydrogen bonding
basially really freaking strong dipole-dipole forces
hydrogen has really low electronnegativity and when it is combined with other elements with high electro. it creates partial charges
because the partial charges are strong, the dipole-dipole force is strong
the least common state of matter
liquid because they only exist in narrow range of temp and pressure
particles of a liquid
high density, relative incompressibility because the particles are ightly packed.
particles of a liquid
high density, relative incompressibility because the particles are ightly packed.
why can liquids diffuse and dissolve
the particles are in costant random motion.
surface tension
force that pulls together adjacent particles of a liquids surface.
if temperature increases, surface tension_____
decreases
most, but not all, solids are________ but some are amorphous(without shape)
crystalline
glass
super cooled liquid
when heated an amorphous solid will ______ before it melts
soften
name some amorphous solids
butter, chocolate
The particles of a solid will______ and are stuck in position.
vibrate
the particles in a solid cant move because of intermolecular forces.
sublimation
solid to gas
deposition
gas to solid
heat is required to break
intermolecular forces
heat is released if intermolecular forces are
strengthened or formed.
Heat of Fusion
energy require to melt one mol. of a solid
heat of vaporization
energy require to boil one mol. of a liquid
melting is endothermic because
heat is require to weaken intermolecular forces
boiling is endothermic because
heat is required to break Intermolecular forces.
equilibrium
rate of evaporation will equal rate of condensation
equilibrium vapor pressure
the pressure of a gas at equilibrium with its corresponding liquid.
le chatlier’s principle
if a system at equilibrium loses its equilibrium, it will adjust itself in an attempt to return to equil.
temperature at which a liquid’s equiilibrium vapor pressure equals atmospheric pressure.
boiling point
boiling point depends upon
the strength of intermolecular forces of the liquid, and atm.