Intermolecular Forces

Three types of intermolecular forces

London Dispersion

Dipole-Dipole

Ionic

What is an ion dipole?
Force between an ion and the partial charge on the end of a polar molecule
NOT REALLY IMPORTANT
Dipole-Dipole
Polar molecules attracted to each other
With molecules of equal mass and size what happens with increasing polarity?
Dipole-Dipole Strength increases
London Dispersion
Everything has London Dispersion
Attraction between all molecules
As molecular weight increases so does what?
Strength of London Dispersion
Hydrogen bonding occurs when Hydrogen bonds to?
F, O, or N
Hydrogen bonding Definition
Very strong Dipole-Dipole
H-F is most polar, so strongest
Which is more dense. Ice or Water? Why?
Water
Molecules assume an ordered, open arrangement
Ions are involved
Polar molecules and ions are present
Ion-Dipole Forces
Ions are involved
Only ions are present
Ionic Bonding
Ions aren’t involved
Polar molecules aren’t involved
London Dispersion Forces
Ions aren’t involved
Polar molecules are involved
Hydrogen not bonded O, N, or F
Dipole-Dipole Forces
Ions aren’t involved
Polar molecules are involved
Hydrogen bonded O, N, or F
Hydrogen Bonding
Organize these in terms of 1. being Weakest
Dipole-Dipole
H-Bonding
Ionic Bonding
London Dispersion
Ion-Dipole
First is weakest remember
1. London Dispersion
2. Dipole-Dipole
3. H-Bonding
4. Ion-Dipole
5. Ionic Bonding
Viscosity
Resistance of liquid to flow
Viscosity ______ as molecular weight increases
Increases
Viscosity _____ with increasing temperature
Decreases
Why do liquids bead up on surfaces
Surface Tension
Surface Tension
Energy required to increase the surface area of a liquid
Heat of fusion
Energy required to melt a solid
Heat of vaporization
Energy required to make a liquid a gas
Critical temperature
Highest temperature at which a liquid phase can form
Critical Pressure
Pressure required at the critical tiemperature
Nonpolar, low weight substances have _____ critical temperatures and pressures
Lower
Vapor Pressure
Pressure exerted by a gas on its space
Volatile liquids Definition
Liquids that evaporate readily/quick
Volatile liquids have __ vapor pressures
High
Triple Point
All 3 phases at equilibrium
Orderring of atoms in Crystalline solid
Well defined
Properties of molecular bonds in crystalline solids
Fairly soft
Low melting point
Dont conduct electricity
Forces between molecular bonds in crystalline solids
LD
Dipole-Dipole
H-Bonds
Form of unit particles of molecular bonds in crystalline solids
Atoms or molecules
Properties of Covalent-network bonds in crystalline solids
Very Hard
Very high melting point
Dont conduct electricity
Properties of Ionic bonds in crystalline solids
Hard and brittle
High melting point
Dont conduct electricity
Properties of Metallic bonds in crystalline solids
Soft to very hard
Low to very High melting point
Conduct electricity
Malleable and Ductle
Forces between Covalent-network bonds in crystalline solids
Covalent Bonds
Forces between Ionic bonds in crystalline solids
Electrostatic attractions?
Forces between Metallic bonds in crystalline solids
Metallic Bonds
Form of unit particles of Covalent-network bonds in crystalline solids
Atoms connected in a network of covalent bonds
Form of unit particles of Ionic bonds in crystalline solids
Positive and negative ions
Form of unit particles of Metallic bonds in crystalline solids
Atoms
What are Diamond and SiO2 and Graphite
Covalent Network
Most substances that are gas or liquid at room temperature are usually ______ solids
Molecular
What is the only type of bond not due to LD
The bonds in metallic solids
Stronger the IMF the ____ the viscosity
Greater
What are held together by a “sea” of electrons
Metallic Solids
volatility= what in relation to imf
Lowest
Odor
High vapor pressure and volatility
What conducts electricity only when melted or dissolved
Ionic
What is usually water soluble
Ionic
Insoluble in water
LD nonpolar with covalent bonds
Insoluble in common solvents
Covalent
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