intraphase soil processes

how the toxic effects of Al can be reversed
when properly managed, they can be reversed by returning Al to solid phases that are sparingly soluble

one way this can be done is by liming to raise the pH

some potentially toxic metals
-Pb
-Cd
-Hg
-As
-Cr
-Al
some intraphase processes that can happen in the soil organic matter
-functional group formation
-synth/decay
-structural rearrangement
some intraphase processes that can happen in the soil minerals
-crystallization
-functional group formation
-oxidation/reduction
some things that can happen in the soil solution (aqueous phase)
-hydration
-hydrolysis
-acid-base
-oxidation-reduction
-complexation
a soil’s reactivity is mostly regulated by…
the aqueous phase
how hydrolysis can detoxify soluble elements
by removing element from its toxic form and binding it with an OH
Lowry-Bronstead bases
species in solution that accept protons
Lowry-Bronstead acids
species in solution that donate protons
aqueous complexation aka ion pair formation
when a cation and an anion of unequal charge combine to form a polyatomic ionexample: Cd2+ + Cl –> Cd+
Lewis acid
cation that initiates a chemical rxn by employing an unoccupied electronic orbital
a Lewis base is a…
ligand
ligand
a substance that initiates a chemical rxn by employing a doubly occupied electronic orbital
what ligands can do to other species in the soil solution
charge neutral or an anion
Lowry-Bronstead acidity
special case of Lewis acidity, where H+ is the cation
the cation in Lowry-Bronstead acidity
H+