Intro Chem basic vocab terms

115 92
115 known elements
92 are naturally occuring
Periodic Table- vertical columns are called __________? Horizontal are called ________?
Vertical are groups or families
Horizontal are called periods or series
What are Group A elements?
Main group or representative elements.
GIA
GIIA
GVIA
GVIIA
GVIIIA
Alkali metals
alkaline earth metals
chalcogens
halogens
noble or inert gases
Elements can be classified as:
_________, ____________, __________
metals, non metals and metalloids
Transitional metals
The transition metals are the metallic elements that serve as a bridge, or transition, between the two sides of the table
Lanthanide and actinide series
Sometimes known as the inner transition metals because they have atomic numbers that fall between the first and second elements in the last two rows of the transition metals.
What do transitional metals have in common?
* they form colored compounds
* they are good conductors of heat and electricity
* they can be hammered or bent into shape easily
* they are less reactive than alkali metals such as sodium
* they have high melting points – but mercury is a liquid at room temperature
* they are usually hard and tough
* they have high densities
Noble / Inert Gases
Valence electron shells are full
Located Group VIII
* Fairly nonreactive
* Complete valence shell
* High ionization energies
* Very low electronegativities
* Low boiling points (all gases at room temperature)
Chemistry
The study of everything, especially of atomic and molecular systems
Matter
anything that has mass and occupies space
Mass
the amount of matter and object possesses
Physical Property
Inherent physical characteristics of a substance that can be determined w/o altering its composition: color, tast, odor, state of matter, density, melting point, boiling point
Chemical property
The ability of a substance to form new substances either by reaction with other substances or by decomposition
Intensive property
extensive property
physical change
a change in form (size, shape, or physical state) w/o a change in composition
chemical change
a change producing products that differ in composition from the original substances
pure substance
element
basic building block of matter that can’t be broken down into simpler substances
compounds
a distinct substance composed of 2 or more elements combined in a definite proportion by mass
monoatomic elements
polyatomic elements
molecule
the smallest uncharged individual unit of a compound formed by the union of 2 or more atoms
homonuclear molecule
heteronuclear molecule
mixture
Matter containing 2 or more substances
Can be homogeneous(sugar water) or heterogeneous (sand and water)
heterogenous mixture
Matter without a uniform composition – having 2 or more components or phases
(sand and water)
homogenous mixture
Matter with uniform properties
(sugar water)
ionic compounds
a compound composed of ions
(eg Na+Cl-)
covalent compounds
chemical formulas
A shorthand method for showing the composition of a compound using symbols of the element
electron transference
electron sharing
cations
A positively charged ion
anions
A negatively charged ion
Emperical formulas
a chemical formula that gives the smallest whole number ratio of atoms in a compound…that is, the relative number of atoms of each element in the compound. aka the simplest formula
true formulas
solution
A system in which one or more substances are homogeneously mixed or dissolved in another substance
solvent
the dissolving agent or the most abundant component in a solution
solute
The substance that is dissolved – or the leat abundant component in a solution
potential energy P.E.
Stored energy or the energy of an object due to its relative position
Kinetic energy K.E.
Energy in motion; the energy that matter possesses due to its motion KE=1/2mv (v is squared)
chemical/electrical/heat/light/nuclear energies
heat
A form of energy associated with the motion of small particles of matter
temperature
A measure of the intensity of heat or of how hot or cold a system is;the SI unit is the kelvin (K)
Enthalpyl
exothermic
heat is released as a product
endothermic
heat is absorbed
States of Matter
changes in state
changes in phase
solids
A state of matter having a definite shape and a definite volume, whose particles cohere rigidly to one another so that a solid can be independent of its container
liquids
A state of matter in which the particles move about freely while the substance retains a definite volume; thus liquids flow and take the shape of their containers.
gasses
A state of matter that has no shape or definite volume so that the substance completely fills its container
interparticle attractions
free volume
occupied volume
mobile particles
fluids
condensed states
Protons
P+
Neutrons
N (no charge)
Electrons
e- (negative charged)
nucleus
The central part of an atom that contains all its protons and neutrons. The nucleus is very dense and has a positive electrical charge
electron cloud
atomic number
The number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of a given element (Z)
mass #
the sum of the protons and neutrons in the nucleus of a given isotope of an atom (A)
isotopes
Hydrogen H
Deutrium HD
Tritium HT
Allotrope
A substance existing in 2 or more molecular or crystalline forms (eg graphite and diamonds are 2 allotropic forms of carbon)
Buckminster fallerenes
electrolyte
A substance whose aqueous solution conducts electricity
non electrolye
A substance whose aqueous solution does not conduct electricity
ionic bonds
The chemical bond between a positively charged ion and a negatively charged ion
covelant bonds
A chemical bond formed between two atoms by sharing a pair of electrons
Metallic behavior
non metallic behavior
ionization
The formation of ions, which occurs as the result of a chemical reation of certain substances with water
ions
A positively or negatively charged atoms or group of atoms
bonding
e- transform
e- sharing
A
E
Z
A = mass
E=
Z= atomic number
A
E +N
Z
A=mass
E=
Z=atomic number
Metalloid
An element having properties that are intermediate between those of metals and nonmetals (eg silicon). These elements are useful in electronics