Intro final to Mrs. Griffens

the addition of Cl2 or Br2 to an alkene or benzene to form holgen-containing compounds
halogenation
an addition reaction in which the components of water, H— and —-OH, bond to the carbon-carbon double bond to form an alcohol
hydration
The addition of hydrogen (H2) to the double bond of alkenes to yield alkanes.
hydrogenation
The addition of hydrogen halide such as HCl or HBr to a double bond
hydrohalogenation
When adding HX or HOH to alkenes with different numbers of groups attached to the double bonds, the H— adds to the carbon that has the greater number of hydrogen atoms
Markovnikov’s Rule
these are more soluble in water
alcohols and ethers
When heated with an acid catalyst and with the loss of —H and ___OH from adjacent carbon atoms
Dehydration of alcohols and the result is an alkene
In the ____ of an organic compound, there is an increase in the number of C—O bonds and there is a loss of H
oxidation
True or False do Tertiary alcohols readily oxidize?
False, they do not readily oxidize
____ are a major source of energy from our diet, composed of the elements C, H and O and are also called saccharides, which means “sugars”
Carbohydrates
the simplest carbohydrates are
monosaccharides
these consist of 2 monosaccharides
disaccharides
these consist of many monosaccharides
polysaccharides
____ consist of 3-6 carbon atoms (typically), a carbonyl group (aldehyde or ketone) and several hydroxyl groups
monosaccharides
____ are monosaccharides with an aldehyde group, with many hydroxyl groups
aldoses
____ are monosaccharides with a ketone group and many hydroxyl groups.
ketoses
a _____ consists of two monosaccharides
disaccharide
glucose + glucose =
maltose + H2O
glucose + galactose =
lactose + H2O
glucose+ fructose =
sucrose + h2o