Intro into Chemistry

Natural Laws
concise statements often in mathematical form about natural phenomenon
hypothesis
tentative explanation of a natural law
Theory
model or way of looking at nature that can be used to explain natural laws and make future predictions about natural phenomina
Scientific Method
combination of observation, experimentation, and formulation of laws, hypotheses and theories
Chemistry
Science that deals with the composition and properties of matter
Matter
anything that occupies space and displays the properties of mass and energy(inertia)
Compostition
refers the the parts of compounds of a sample of matter and their relative proportions
Properties
re those qualities or attributes that we an use to distinguish one sample of matter from another
Physical Property
is one that a sample of matter displays without chaninging its composition i.e. color staying the same and so forth
Physical Change
when the physical properties of a subject change but its composition stays the same
Chemical Change(reaction)
when one or more kinds of matter are converted to new kinds of matter with different compositions
Chemical Property
the ability or inability of a sample of matter to undergo a change in composition under stated conditions
Atoms
the very tiny units that make up matter
Elements
114 substances of atoms that make up these pieces that make matter
Compounds
substances comprised of atoms of two or more elements joined together
Molecule
the smallest entity having the same proportions of the constituent atoms as does the compound itself
Substance
is a element or compound that has constant properties throughout a a given sample and from one sample to another
Homogeneous mixture
a solution said to be uniform throughout in both composition and properties
Heterogeneous mixtures
(i.e. sand and water) components of a substance that separate into distinct regions
Solid
where atoms and molecules are in close contact, in sometimes highly organized sections called crystals
Liquid
where the atoms or molecules are separated in somewhat greater distances than that of a solid
Gas
distances of molecules and atoms are very much spread apart. Gas always expands to full container
SI Units
Ssteme Internationale d’Unites, which is the modern version of the metric system used for scientific measuring
Define Units and symbol of Length
meter m
Define Units and symbol of Mass
kilogram kg
Define Units and symbol of Time
second s
Define Units and symbol of Temperature
kelvin K
Define Units and symbol of Amount of Substance
mole mol
Define Units and symbol of Electric Current
ampere A
Define Units and symbol of luminous intensity
candela cd
10^1
deca(d)
10^2
Hecto(h)
10^3
Kilo(k)
10^6
Mega(M)
10^9
giga(G)
10^12
Tera(T)
10^-1
Deci(d)
10^-2
centi(c)
10^-3
milli(m)
10^6
micro
10^9
nano(n)
Mass
describes the quantity of matter in an object. In SI, mass= 1gram
Celsius
melting point of ice is 0 degrees while the oiling point is 100
Fahreneit
melting point of ice is 32 degress and the boiling point is 212
Kelvin
assigns a value of zero to the lowest possible temperature. No negative Kelvin numbers
-273.15C =0K
Density
ration of mass to volume, aka mass(m)/volume(v)
Extensive property
where mass and volume are both dependent on the quantity of matter observed
Intensive property
Where mass and volume are independent of amount of matter observed, aka the density is equal on both a glass of water and a pool
Precision
referrs to the degree of reproductivity of a measured quantity, that is closeness of agreement when the same quantity is measured several times
Accuracy
refers to how close a measured value is to accepted or actual value
Law of Conservation of mass
Lavoisier’s law that the total mass of a substance present after a chemical reaction is the same as the total mass of substances before the reaction
Law of Constant Composition(definite proportions)
Proust’s law that all samples of a compound have the same composition-the same proportions by mass of constituent elements
Daltons Atomic Theory(3 points)
1.Each element is made of indivisible particles called atoms
2. All atoms of a single element are alike in mass and other properties
3.In each of their compounds different elements combine in simple ratios
Law of multiple proportions
If two elements form more than a single compound, the masses of one element combined with a fixed mass of the second are in the ration of small whole numbers
Cathode ray
type of radiation emitted by negative terminal(cathode)
Electrolysis
the decompositon of a substance either in molten state or in an electrolyte solution, by means of electric current
Protons
positively charged fundamental particles of matter in nuclei of atoms
Neutrons
neutral particles
Atomic number
given number of protons in an atom
Mass number
total number of protons and neutrons in an atom
Neutron number
Mass number – proton number
Isotopes
atoms that have the same atomic number but different mass numbers
Ions
when atoms lose or gain electrons in the course of a chemical reaction, form ions, which carry net charges
Molecular compound
a small number of nonmetal atoms held together by covalent bonds
Chemical formulas
what represents molecular compounds which indicate the elements present and the relative number of atoms of each element
empirical formula
simplest formulas for compounds:shows types of atoms present and their relative numbers
Molecular formula
based on actual molecule of a compound
Structural Formula
shows the order in which atoms are bonded together in a molecule and by what types of bonds
ionic compound
compound made up of positive and negative ions joined together by electrostatic forces of attraction
cation
result of electron transfer that takes an electron away
anion
result of electron transfer that adds an electron, making to be negatively charged
1 & 2 & 3 & 4
mono & di & tri & tetra
5 & 6 & 7 & 8 & 9 & 10
penta & hexa & hepta & octa & nona & deca
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