Intro PDA Exam 2

How structure affects movement of the drug from point A to point B?

ADME

Absorption

Distribution

Metabolism

Excretion

What is the main organ most drugs have to go through?
Liver
Isomer
Different compoiunds with the same molecular formula
Aliphatic

Alkanes

Alkenes

Alkynes

In order for oxidation to occur, alkanes need what?
An enzyme
Rxns of Alkenes

Halogenation

Hydrogenation

Oxidation

Dienes
Two double bonds
w-oxidation
Oxidation occurs on the last Carbon
w-1 oxidation
Oxidation occurs on the next to last carbon
CH3CH2CH2OH
Primary Alcohol
[image]
Secondary Alcohol
[image]
Tertiary Alcohol
When oxidized primary alcohols form?
Aldehydes and Carboxylic Acids
When oxidized secondary alcohols form?
Ketones
[image]
Ketone
[image]
Aldehyde
[image]
Carboxylic Acid
[image]
Ether
[image]
Ester
[image]
Amide
When oxidized tertiary alcohols form?
No Rxn
Rate dehydration of alcohols from slowest to fastest
Primary<Secondary<Tertiary
Isolated Diene
double bonds seperated by two single bonds
[image]
Isolated Diene
Conjugated Diene
Double bonds seperated by one single bond
[image]
Conjugated Diene
Conjugated diene have ____ energy; more _____
lower; stable
Isolated diene has _____ energy; more ____
higher; reactive
[image]
Phenol
Electron Donating Groups
-OH, -OR, -SH, -SR, -NR, -R1, -R2, -R3
What do electron donating groups do to the aromatic ring?
Activate
If the R is electron donating, what can occur and where?

Oxidation can occur

It occurs in the para position

Electron Withdrawing Groups

Halogens (F, Br, Cl, I)

COOH, aldehydes, ketones, ester

T or F: Oxidation can occur when the R group is an electron withdrawing group
False
Five Acidic Functional Groups

  1. Carboxylic Acid
  2. Sulfonic Acid
  3. Phosphoric Acid
  4. Sulfonamide
  5. Active methylene group

[image]
Sulfonic Acid
[image]
Phosphoric Acid
[image]
Sulfonamide
Acids have a _____ pKa
High
Bases have a _____ pKa
Low
What is used to mease the stregth of an acid?
pKa
Are Amines basic or acidic?
Basic
T or F: Quaternary amines are not basic
True
Rules to determine if a drug is basic:

  1. A nitrogen MUST be present
  2. Is there a strong electorn withdrawing gp attached to N? if yes NOT BASIC
  3. Does N carry a positive charge? if yes NOT BASIC
  4. If e’s of N contribute to the aromaticity of a ring NOT BASIC
  5. If N is flanked by two e withdrawing gps NOT BASIC, but H is acidic

Neutral Drug
The drug does not contain any acidic grps and basic nitrogens
Amphoteric Drugs
The drug contains both an acidic grp and a basic Nitrogen
Zwitterionic Drug
A charged species
How does a drug know where to go?

  • Shape of drug
  • Affinity for receptor

What happens to salt when it is placed in H20?
Salt will undergo hydrolysis and the solution will becom ebasic
3 Rxns of Carboxylic Acids

  1. Ionization
  2. Neutralization
  3. Esterfication

Esters undergo what type of rxn?
Hydrolysis
Diastereomeers
these are the stereoisomers which are not mirror images
Henderson- Hasselbach Equation
PH= pKa + Log [cong. base]/[acid]
Oxidation
Removing a H
Reduction
Adding a H
[image]
Azo Group
Reduction of azo groups will ALWAYS form ???
Primary amines
When determining the # of stereoisomers what equation would you use?

2n

n= # of chiral centers

Which configuration has coutner-clockwise rotation?
S- configuration
Which configuration has clockwise rotation?
R- configuration
Acids are proton _____
Donors
Bases are proton ______
Acceptors
Equation for % ionization;of acids

100


1+10(pka-ph)

What is the primary purpose for metabolism
to facilitate elimination from the body
In order for a drug to go thru phase 2 which groups must be present?

-OH, -NH2, -COOH, -SH

Oxidative N-dealkylation
removal of an akyl group from a nitrogen
Desulfuration
removal of a sulfur
Types of phase 1

Oxidative

Reductive

Hydrolytic

O-Glucuronic Acid Conjugation
Adding glucuronic acid to an Oxygen
Sulfate Conjugation
Adding sulfur to a functional group
Amino Acid Conjugation

Adding an amino acid to a functional group

;

*can only happen on Carboxylic Acid*

S- Methylation
Adding a methyl group to a sulfur
Types of Phase 2 Rxns

Glucuronic Acid Conjugation (O, N, S)

Sulfate Conjugation

Amino Acid Conjugation

Methylation ( O, N, S)

Acetylation

Glutathione Conjugation