Intro to Chem

CHEMISTRY
THE BRANCH OF SCIENCE THAT DEALS WITH THE CHARACTERISTICS AND COMPOSITIONS OF ALL MATERIAL AND WITH THE REACTIONS THEY CAN UNDERGO
NATURAL LAW
A STATEMENT THE SUMMERIZES THE EXPERIMENTAL FACTS ABOUT NATURE WHERE BEHAVIOR IS CONSISTANT AND HAS NO KNOWN EXCEPTINS
THEORY
A WELL-ESTABLISHED EXPLANATION THAT HAS WITHSTOOD EXTENSIVE TESTING
HYPOTHESIS
A TENTATIVE, REASONABLE EXPLANATION OF FACTS OF A LAW
EXPERIMENT
A CONTROLLED INVESTIGATION USED TO TEST OR OBTAIN FACTS, TO TEST OR ESTABLISH A HYPOTHESIS OR THE ILLUSTRATE A KNOWN SCIENTIFIC LAW
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
THE PROCESS OF FOLLOWING SPECIFIC PROCEDURES WHEN SOLVING PROBLEMS OR CARRYING OUT PLANNED RESEARCH
APPLIED RESEARCH
RESEARCH THAT WORKS TOWARD THE DEVELOPEMENT ON NEW PRODUCTS
BASIC RESEARCH
THE SEARCH FOR KNOWLEDGE FOR ITS OWN SAKE.
SOLIDS
THE STATE OF MATTER IN WHICH THE SUBSTANCE MAINTAINS ITS SHAPE AND VOLUME
LIQUIDS
THE STATE OF MATTER IN WHICH THE SUBSTANCE ASSUMES THE SHAPE OF ITS CONTAINER, FLOWS READILY AND MAINTAINS A FAIRLY CONSTANT VOLUME
GAS
THE STATE OF MATTER IN WHICH THE SUBSTANCE MAINTAINS NEITHER SHAPE NOR VOLUME
GASES
1000 TIMES LESS DENCE OF A SOLID/LIQUID
ELEMENT
A SUBSTANCE THAT CANNOT BE DECOMPOSED INTO SIMPLER SUBSTANCES OY CHEMICAL OR PHYSICAL MEANS
COMPOUND
A PURE SUBSTANCE MADE UP OF TWO OR MORE KINDS OF ELEMENTS THAT ARE COMBINDED TOGETHER CHEMICALLY IN FIXED PROPORTIONS
LAW OF DEFINITE PROPORTIONS
A GIVEN COMPOUND ALWAYS HAS A SPECIFIC ATOM RATIO AND A SPECIFIC MASS RATIO OF EACH ELEMENT IN THE COMPOUND
HETROGENEOUS MIXTURE
A MIXTURE OF SUBSTANCES THAT DOES NOT HAVE A UNIFORM COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES THROUGHOUT
HOMOGENEOUS MIXTURE
A MIXTURE THAT HAS THE SAME COMPOSITION AND PROPERTIES THOUGHOUT
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF A SUBSTANCE THAT IDENTIFIES THE SUBSTANCE WITHOUT CAUSING A CHANGE IN ITS COMPOSITION
COLOR..ODOR..DENSITY..BOILING/MELTING POINT
EXAMPLES OF PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
CHARACTERISTIC PROPERTIES OF A SUBSTANCE THAT RELATES TO HOW THE SUBSTANCE CHANGES COMPOSITION
REACTIVITY..RATIO OF ATOMS
EXAMPLES OF CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
INTENSIVE PROPERTIES
THE CHARACTERISTIC PHYISICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES THAT ARE NOT DEPENDENT ON SAMPLE SIZE
DENSITY..BOILING/MELTING POINT..CONDUCTIVITY
EXAMPLES OF INTENSIVE PROPERTIES
EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES
PROPERTIES THAT RELATE TO THE AMOUNT OF MATERIAL IN A SAMPLE
MASS..VOLUME
EXAMPLES OF EXTENSIVE PROPERTIES
PHYSICAL CHANGE
A CHANGE IN WHICH THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A SUBSTANCE IS NOT AFFECTED
CHEMICAL CHANGE
A CHANGE IN THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF A SUBSTANCE. CHEMICAL REACTION
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF MASS
MASS IS NEITHER CREATED NORE DESTROYED DURING A CHEMICAL REACION
ENERGY
THE CAPACITY TO DO WORK OR TO TRANSFER HEAT
WORK
THE MOVEMENT OF A MASS THROUGH A DISTANCE
MATTER
ANYTHING THAT HAS MASS AND TAKE UP SPACE
MASS
A MEASURE OF THE QUANTITY OF MATTER IN AN OBJECT
WEIGHT
THE FORCE OF GRAVITY ACTING ON THE MASS OF A PARTICULAR OBJECT
KINETIC ENERGY
THE ENERGY THAT OBJECT OR MOLECULES POSSESS BECAUSE OF THEIR MOTION
POTENTIAL ENERGRY
THE STORED ENERGY AN OBJECT POSSESS BECAUSE OF ITS POSITION OR ITS CHEMICAL COMPOSITION
EXOTHERMIC
A CHEMICAL REACTION THAT RELESES HEAT ENERGY
ENDOTHERMIC
A CHEMICAL REACTION THE PRECEEDS ONLY WHEN IT ABSORBS HEAT FROM THE SURROUNDINGS
LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY
ENERGY IN NEITHER CREATED NOR DESTROYED DURING A CHEMICAL REACTION
CONSERVATION OF MATTER TO ENERGY
IN NUCLEAR REACTIONS, NEITHER MATTER NOR ENERGY IS CONSERVED BUT RATHER THE TOTAL SUM OF MATTER AND ENERGY IS CONSTANT. E=MC2
METER..KILOGRAM..KELVIN..SECOND..MOLE
UNITS OF SI
DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
AN APPROACH TO PROBLEM SOLVING WHERE THE GIVEN QUANTITY AND UNITS ARE MULTIPLIED BY ONE OR MORE CONVERSION FACTORS
PRECISION
THE DEGREE TO WHICH REPEATED MEASUREMENTS OF A QUANTITY ARE IN AGREEMENT
ACCURACY
HOW CLOSELY EXPERIMENTAL MEASUREMENTS AGREE WITH THE TRUE VALUE
EXACT NUMBERS
ONE THAT HAS NO UNCERTAIN DIGITS AND IS OBTAINED BY DIRECT COUNT OR BY DEFINITION
F=(9/5)(C)+32
EQUATION FROM CELCIUS TO FAHRENHEIT
C=(5/9)(F-32)
EQUATION FROM FAHRENHEIT TO CELCUIS
K = C + 273
EQUATION FROM CELCIUS TO KELVIN
TEMPERATURE
MEASURES THE AVERAGE KINETIC ENERGY OF THE PARTICLES IN A SUBSTANCE
HEAT
ENERGY THAT IS TRANSFORMED BETWEEN SAMPLES OF MATTER BECAUSE OF DIFFERENCES INTHEIR TEMPERATURE
CALORIE
THE AMOUNT OF HEAT REQUIRED TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF 1.0 GRAM OF WATER BY 1C
SPECIFIC HEAT
THE AMOUNT OF HEAT NEEDED TO RAISE THE TEMPERATURE OF 1.0G OF A SUBSTANCE BY 1C
PERIOD
THE HORIZONTAL ROW OF ELEMENTS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE
FAMILY
THE VERTICAL COLUMNS OF ELEMENTS INTHE PERIODIC TABLE
CONDUCTIVITY
THE CAPACITY FOR TRANSFERING HEAT OR ELECTRICAL ENERGY
LUSTER
THE ABILITY TO REFLECT LIGHT
MALLEABLE
THE CAPABILITY OF A METAL TO BE SHAPED INTO THIN SHEETS
DUCTILE
THE ABILITY OF A METAL TO BE DRAWN INTO A WIRE
ELECTROLYSIS
A PROCESS WHERE A DIRECT ELECTRICAL CURRENT IS USED TO DECOMPOSE A COMPOUND OR IONIC SOLUTION
LAW OF MULTIPLE PROPORTIONS
IF TWO ELEMENT FORM MORE THAN ONE COMPOUND, THE MASSES OF ONE ELEMENT THAT COMBINE WITH A FIXED MASS OF THE SECOND ELEMENTS ARE IN SIMPLE, WHOLE NUMBER RATIOS
ATOMIC NUMBER
TOTAL NUMBER OF PROTONS IN AN ATOM
MASS NUMBER
TOTAL NUMBER OF PROTONS AND NEUTRONS IN AN ATOM
NUCLEUS
THE TINY CENTER OF AN ATOM THAT CONTAINS AN ATOMS PROTONS AND NEUTRONS
ISOTOPES
ATOMS OF A PARTICULAR KIND OF ELEMENT THAT HAVE DIFFERENT NUMBERS OF NEUTRONS
ATOMIC MASS
THE WEIGHTED AVERAGE OF THE ATOMIC MASSES FOR THE MIXTURE OF ALL NATURALLY OCCURING ISOTOPES OF AN ELEMENT
MOLE
THE AMOUNT OF A SUBSTANCE WHOSE MASS IN GRAMS IS NUMERICALLY EQUAL TO THE FORMULA WEIGHT OF THE SUBSTANCE
MOLAR MASS
THE MASS IN GRAMS OF A MOLE OF ANY SUBSTANCE
AVOGADRO’S NUMBER
THE NUMBER OF ATOMS, IONS, OR MOLECULES IN A MOLE…N= 6.022 X 10 TO THE 23RD
AMU–ATOMIC MASS UNITS
THE UNIT FOR EXPRESSING THE RELATIVE MASS OF ATOMS. EQUAL TO 1/12 OF THE MASS OF A CARBON-12 ATOM
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