Introduction to Chemistry: Basics

What are the 3 states of matter?
Liquid, Solid, and Gas
Liquid
indefinite shape but a definite volume
Solid
Definite shape and definite volume
Sublimation
Matter turns from solid to gas
Deposition
Matter turns from gas to solid
Condensation
Matter turns from gas to liquid
Evaporation
Matter turns from liquid to gas
Melting
Matter turns from solid to liquid
Freezing
Matter turns from liquid to solid
Chemistry
The study of matter
Matter
Something that occupies space and has a mass
Physical Change
a type of change in which the form of matter is altered but one substance is not transformed into another.

ex: Water to Ice

Chemical Change
process where one or more substances are altered into one or more new and different substances

chemical reaction

Physical Property
Things that can be measured without chemically changing the substance, Color, shape, volume, weight, texture, etc.
Chemical property
Observed when a substance undergoes chemical change, iron rusting, gasoline burning, etc
Two Pure Substances
Elements and Compounds
Elements
The building blocks of all matter. They are one thing and cannot be broken into a simpler substance
Compounds
Combination of 2 or more elements in a FIXED ratio. Written in formulas like H2O, and CO2
Mixture
Combination of 2 or more substances in NO FIXED RATIO
Homogeneous Mixture
Uniform properties throughout (one can see no irregularities)
Ex: Salt water- salt dissolves in water, leaves little sign it’s there
Heterogeneous Mixture
Does not have uniform properties throughout
Ex: Sand in water, sand sinks to the bottom and doesn’t dissolve
Energy
Capacity to do work
Exothermic Energy
Process that absorbs energy
Endothermic Energy
Process that gives off energy
Law of Conservation of Mass/Energy
Mass/Energy is neither created nor destroyed through a chemical/physical change
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
Potential Energy
Stored energy – log, or gasoline that can be burned for energy
Significant Figures- 81.59 How many Sig Figs? Why?
4 because all non-zero numbers are significant
1.040 How many Sig Figs? Why?
4 because zeros between numbers are significant
8.740 How many sig figs and why?
4 because zeros after a decimal are significant
Significant Figures
Used to show how far numbers are carried out, and how specific the number is.
Rounding Rules- Multiplication and Division
The least number of sig figs used in calculation are the number of sig figs reported in an answer
Rounding Rules- Addition/subtraction
The last common place w/ a sig fig used in the calculation is the last place with sig figs recorded in the answer
Put 0.00023 in Scientific notation
2.3×10^4
Put 5.7×10^-5 in standard notation
.000057
Formula for speed
Length/Time
Formula for Density
Density=Mass/Volume
Density of Water
1.0g/cm^2
Formula for converting Celsius to Fahrenheit
F=1.8(C)+32
Formula for finding Kelvin
K=C+273
Structure of an Atom
Atoms are made of SUBATOMIC PARTICLES, the proton, neutron, and electron. The proton and neutrons are packed into the nucleus of an atom
Proton
Positively charged particle (+)
Neutron
neutral particles
Electrons
negatively charged particle
Nucleus
Contains protons and neutrons, and has a positive charge. It is also the mass of the Atom
Electron Cloud
99.9% of the volume of an atom
Mass Number
The top number, and the number of protons and neutrons
How does one find the number of neutrons
Mass Number- Atomic Number
Atomic Number
The bottom number, and it is the number of protons in an atom

Atomic Number

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6 is the Atomic Number


 

How Many Neutrons?

[image]

Six

What is the Mass Number?

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12

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