Introductory Chemistry

Chemistry
Science of the structure and interactions of matter
Matter
Anything that occupies space and has mass
Mass
Amount of matter in any living organism or nonliving thing
Chemical Elements
Building blocks of matter
OCHN
Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Nitrogen; Consitute about 96% of body’s mass; considered “main elements”
Ca
Calcium
P
Phosphorus
K
Potassium
S
Sulfur
Na
Sodium
Cl
Chlorine
Mg
Magnesium
Fe
Iron
Atom
Smallest unit of matter
Two basic parts of an atom:
Nuclues and one or more electrons
Protons
Located in nuclues; positively charged
Neutrons
Located in the nucleus; neutrally charged (uncharged)
Electrons
Located outside the nucleus; negatively charged
Atomic Number
Number of protons in the nucleus
ion
When an atom either gives up or gains electrons (showed by + or – symbols)
Molecule;
When two or more atoms share and electron
Compound
A substance that can be broken down into two or more different elements
ionic bond
Force of attraction between ions of opposite charges
Cation
Positively charged ion
Anion
Negatively charged ion
Electrolyte
An ionic compound that breaks apart into cations and anions when dissolved in water
Covalent bond
When atoms combine and neither loses or gains electrons
Chemical Reaction
Occurs when new bonds form and/or old bonds break between atoms
Energy
Capacity to do work
Potential energy
Stored energy
Kinetic energy
Energy of matter in motion
Synthesis Reaction
When two or more atoms, ions, or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules.
Anabolism
The synthesis reactions that occur in your body
Decomposition reaction
Molecule is split apart
Catabolism
Decomposition reactions that occur in your body
Exchange reactions
Consist of both synthesis and decomposition reactions
Metabolism
Sum of all chemical changes in the body
Inorganic compounds

usually lack carbon, structurally simple, held together by ionic or covalent bonds; Include water, acids, bases and many salts

CO2 and HCO3- are exceptions

Organic Compounds
Always contain carbon, usually hydrogen, always have covalent bonds; Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, nucleic acids, and ATP.
Water
Most abundant, important inorganic compound in all living organisms. Makes up 55-60% of body mass.
Solvent
A liqued or gas in which some other material has been dissolved.
Solute
Material that is dissolved in a solvent
Solution
solvent + solute = solution
Monosaccharides
building blocks of carbohydrates; simple sugar
Disaccharides
two monosacchrides joined by a covalent bond; simple surgars
Polysacchrides
Large, complex carbohydrates that contain tens or hundreds of monosacchrides
Lipids
hydrophobic; contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen