IPS Chapter 5

PH scale?
1-14.
Acid and its use?

H2SO4- Sulfuric Acid

Used in production of paper, paints, and batteries.

Acids start with? Composed of what kind of ions?
Start with H. Composed of H+ ions.
Acids turn all litmus paper?
Red
Acids turn PH paper?
Red
Acids turn phenolphthalein?
Colorless/Clear
Acids and bases are corrosive meang?
They “eat away” at other materials. Bases are corrosive to tissue.
Acids taste?
Sour
Base and its use?

NaOH-Sodium Hydroxide also called “lye”

Used in soap, furniture stripping, and oven cleaner.

 

Bases end with? Composed of ions?
End with OH. Composed of -H ions.
Bases taste?
Bitter.
Bases turn all litmus paper?
Blue
Bases turn PH paper?
Blue
Bases turn phenolphthalein?
Pink
Three common indicators?
phenolphthalein, litmus paper, and PH paper.
Salts
Chemical compounds formed by combining an acid and base.
Salts taste?
Salty
Salts turn litmus paper?
Turn litmus paper same color.
Salts turn phenolphthalein?
Turn phenolphthalein colorless.
Salts turn PH paper?
Turn PH paper mustard yellow.
Salt and its use?

NaHCO3- Sodium Bicarbonate or Baking Soda

Used in Baking

Nuetraliztion?
The reaction between an acid and a base to form a salt and water. 
Example of nuetralization equation?

HCI+NaOH –> NaCI+HOH (H2O)

                Acid+Base  –> Salt +Water

PH Scale?
Concentration of hydrogen scale.
Sulfuric Acid

-Acid

-Used in batteries, dyes, and rubber

Hydrochloric Acid
Found in the stomach to break down foods.
Nitric Acid

-Acid

-Used to manufacture explosives, plastics, and fertilizers

Citric Acid
Citrus fruit
Acetyl Salicylic Acid
Asprin
Boric Acid
Eye Wash
Carbonic Acid
Soda Pop
Sodium hydroxide

-Base

-Called Lye

-Used to manufacture soap, paper, and sodium salts

Potassium Hydroxie

-Base

-Used to manufacture soft soap, greases, and potassium salts

Calcium Hydroxide

-Base

-Used to manufacture mortar, plaster, and lime water

Ammonium Hydroxide

-Base

-Used to manufacture household ammonia, fertilizers, and explosives

Sodium Chloride

-Salt

-Table salt

Sodium Carbonate

-Salt

-Used to manufacture glass and washing powders

Sodium Bicarbonate

-Salt

-Baking Soda

Sodium Nitrate

-Salt

-Manufacture fertilizers and explosives

Magnesium Sulfate

-Salt

-Fireproofing of textiles

Copper Sulfate

-Salt

-Used in copper planting and manufacture of fungicides

Acid
Chemical compounds which produce hydrogen ions (H+) when placed in water.
Base
Chemical compounds which produce hydroxyl ions (OH-) when placed in water.
Salt
Chemical compounds which are formed by combining an acid and a base.
On the PH scale what is 3?
Moderate Acid
What is 13 on the PH scale?
Stong base
On the PH scale 6 is?
Weak acid
What is water?
A chemical compound that is made up of 2 hydrogen ions and 1 oxygen ion.
Five body processes in which water is essential:
Cirrculation, Absorbtion, Growth, Excretion, Digestion
Properties of water

-Expands when it freezes

-Ice floats on water b/c it is less dense than water

-Has a high specific heat

-Called the universal solvent

-Freezing point is 0 degrees celcius 

Catalyst
Can either speed up or slow down a chemical reaction and won’t undergo any permanant changes or be used up.
Solvent
Material used to dissolve something (water in saltwater)
Solute
Material that is dissolved (Salt in saltwater)
Sloutions

-Particles are evenly dissolved (uniform)

-Particles are invisible

-Particles don’t settle out

Three factors that affect the rate of dissolving
Tempature, nature of substance, and pressure
Liquids and solid are more soluable at _____ tempatures.
Higher
Gases are more soluable at ______ tempatures.
Lower
Carbon Dioxide is dissolved in soda under what conditions?
Lower temperatures and high pressure.
Solids become more soluable in water as temperatures _______.
Increase
Three things that inrease the rate of dissolving.

-Grinding the solute (solid)

-Shake the solution; mix it together

-Increase the temperature of the solvent

How do solutes effect the boiling point of a substance?
Solutes raise the boiling and lower the freezing point.
Suspension

Non-uniform mixture of tiny, insoluable solid particles distributed throughout a liquid or gas.

Ex. Muddy water, oil based paints

Properties of a suspension

-Particles are visible

-Particles can be removed by filtration

-Particles will settle out if left standing

Colloid

Special kind of suspension where particles are medium sized, so they don’t dissolve, but are evenly, distributed.

Ex. Jello, Milk

Properties of a colloid

-Particles are invisible

-few or none of the particles can be removed

-few or none of the particles will settle out on standing

Why is water shortage a problem?

1.We use more water then we need

2.Water is needed for body function

3.When water is polluted plants and animals die

How much of earths surface does water cover?
70% of earths surface
Seeding
When supersaturated are shaken to settle the excess solute out.
How much of earths water is saltwater?
97%
Desalinization
Making fresh water into seawater.
Dilute solution
Contians a large amount of solvent compared to a relatively small amount of solute.
Concentrated Solution
Contains a comparatively large amount of solute dissolved in a small amount of solvent.
Unsaturated Solution
A solution in which the solvent has less solute dissolved in it than it can hold at a given temperature and pressure.
Saturated Solution
A solution in which the solvent has dissolved all the solute it can dissolve at a given temperature and pressure.
Supersaturated Solution
A solution that contians more dissolved solute than it would normally hold at a given tempature and pressure.
Hydrogen

-is less dense than air

-is “flamable air”

Carbon Dioxide

-density is 1.8X10-3 and is more dense than air

-Somothers fire

-Solid carbon dioxide is dry ice

Commom gas that dissolves very well in water?

Ammonia

Carbon dioxide and oxygen are also slightly soluble in water.

How is acid rain formed?
Sulfur dioxide dissolves in rain water.
Problems with acid rain:

-Dissolves surface of stone

-Damages or kills plants

-Harmful to animals

Formula for finding concentration when given data:

ED+Solid;;;;;;; ED+Solution

-ED;;;;;;;;;;;;;;- ED+Solid;;;

Solid;;;;;;;;;;;;;; Mass of water=Volume of water

;

;

Mass of solid

Volume of water

;

;

;

;

;

;

;

100g of potassium nitrate dissolved in 100cc of water at 80 degrees celcius.
Unsaturated with 69 grams to saturate.
Soft Soap
Base
Vinegar
Acid
Lye
Base
Ammonia
Base
Lemon Juice
acid
Soda
acid
Coffee
Acid
What is 11g in 33.3333cc of water in 100cc?
33g/100cc
Large bodies of water take along time to change temperature because _______.
of water’s high specific heat.
How do you know water is a compound mixture?
When hydrogen and oxygen were mixed they didn’t make water.
What percent of water are plants and animals?
60%
Water is a _______ molecule b/c of the negative and positve charges of the ____ and the ____.

Polar

oxygen atoms

hydrogen atoms

hen is water at its maximum densit?
4C
Does water have coessive or addesive properties?
Both
Boiling and evaporating water to purify it.
distillation
x

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