IUPUI C125 Lab Midterm

Strong Acids
HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO3, HClO4, and H2SO4
Weak Acids (selected few)
HF, HC2H3O2 (acetic acid), H2CO3(carbonic acid), H3PO4 (phosphoric acid), and many more
Strong Bases
NaOH, KOH, LiOH, Ba(OH)2, and Ca(OH)2
Salts (examples)
NaCl, KBr, MgCl2
Weak Bases
NH3 (ammonia), C5H5N (pyridine), and several more, all containing “N”
Charle’s Law

Volume and Temperature are directly proportional to each other. (Take a balloon outside in the cold, it will shrink)

 

V=kT

Boyle’s Law

If temperature and moles of gas are constant, the amount of pressure and volume are inversly proportional:

Increase in pressure=decrease in volume

 

P= k

     —

     V

 

Solubility Rules

(for ionic compounds in water)

1. All common compounds of group 1A ions (Li+, Na+, K+, etc.) and ammonium ion (NH4+) are soluble.

 

2. All common nitrates (NO3), acetates (CH3COO or C2H3O2) and most perchlorates (ClO4) are soluble.

 

3. All common chlorides (Cl), bromides (Br) and iodides (I) are solulble except those of Ag+, Pb2+, Cu+, and Hg22+


4. All common sulfates (SO42-) are soluble, except those of Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, and Pb2+

Insoluble Ionic Compounds

1. All common metal hydroxides are insoluble, except those of Group 1A and the larger members of Group 2A (beginning with Ca2+)


2. All common carbonates (CO32+) and phosphates (PO43-) are insoluble except those of Group 1A and NH4+.



3. All common sulfides and insoluble except those of Group 1A, Group 2A and NH4+.

Formula for mass%

 

 

                  mass%= mass of solute

                               mass of solution


Driving Forces

1. Formation of Precipitate

2. Formation of gas

3. Formation of water (acid-base RXN)

4. Formation of soluble weak electrolyte.

Formation of Precipitate
when two substances react to form an insoluble solid. (use solubility rules)
Formation of Water
In an acid-base reaction will produce water and a salt. (sometimes called neutralization)
Formation of a Soluble Weak Electrolyte
weak electrolyte only dissociates partially.
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