Jarrod’s Chapter 10 Chemistry Vocabulary

Atmosphere (atm)
A unit of pressure equal to 760 torr; 1 atm = 101.325 kPa.
Avogadro’s Hypothesis
A statement that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules.
Avogadro’s Law
A statement that the volume of a gas maintained at a constant temperature and pressure is directly proportional to the number of moles of the gas.
Bar
A united of pressure equal to 105 Pa.
Boyle’s Law
A law stating that at constant temperature, the product of the volume and pressure of a given amount of has is a constant.
Charles’s Law
A law stating that at constant pressure, the volume of a given quantity of gas is proportional to absolute temperature.
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures
A law stating that the total pressure of a mixture of gasses is the sum of the pressures that each gas would exert if it were present alone.
Diffusion
The spreading of one substance through a space occupied by one or more other substances.
Effusion
The escape of a gas through an orifice or hole.
Gas Constant (R)
The constant of proportionality in the ideal-gas equation.
Graham’s Law
A law stating that the rate of effusion of a gas is inversely proportional to the square root of its molecular weight.
Ideal Gas
A hypothetical gas whose pressure, volume, and temperature behavior is completely described by the ideal-gas equation.
Ideal-Gas Equation
An equation of state for gases that embodies Boyke’s law, Charles’s law, and Avogadro’s Hypothesis in the form PV = nRT.
Kinetic-molecular Theory
A set of assumptions about the nature of gasses. These assumptions when translated into mathematical form, yield the ideal-gas equation.
Mean Free Path
The average distances traveled by a gas molecule between collisions.
Mole Fraction
The ratio of the number of moles of one component of a mixture to the total moles of all components; abbreviated X, with a subscript to identify the component.
Partial Pressures
The pressure exerted by a particular gas in a mixture.
Pascals (Pa)
The SI unit of pressure: 1 Pa = 1N/m2.
Pressure
A measure of the force exerted on a unit area. In chemistry, pressure is often expressed in unites of atmospheres (atm) or torr; 760 Torr = 1 atm; in SI units pressure is expressed in pascals.
Root-mean-square (rms) Speed (?)
The square root of the average of the squared speeds of the gas molecules in a gas sample.
Standard Atmospheric Pressure
Defined as 760 torr or, in SI units, 101.325 kPa.
Standard Temperature and Pressure
Defined as 0oC and 1 atm pressure; frequently used as reference conditions for a gas.
Torr
A unit of pressure (1 torr = 1 mm Hg).
Van Der Waals Equation
An equation of state for nonideal gases that is based on adding corrections to the ideal-gas equations. The correction terms account for intermolecular foreces of attraction and for the volumes occupied by the gas molecules themselves.
Vapors
Gaseous state of any substance that normally exists as a liquid or solid.
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