Jarrod’s Chapter 5 Chemistry Vocabulary

Bomb Calorimeter
A device for measuring the heat evolved in the combustion of a substance under constant-volume conditions.
Calorie
A unit of energy, it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1g of water by 1oC from 14.5oC to 15.5oC.
Calorimeter
An apparatus that measures the heat released or absorbed in a chemical or physical process.
Calorimetry
The experimental measurement of heat produced in chemical and physical processes.
Endothermic Process
A process in which a system absorbs heat from its surroundings.
Energy
The capacity to do work or to transfer heat.
Enthalpy
A defined thermodynamic potential, designated by the letter “H”, that consists of the internal energy of the system (U) plus the product of pressure (p) and volume (V) of the system: H = U + pV
Enthalpy of Formation
The enthalpy change that accompanies the formation of a substance from the most stable forms of its component elements.
Enthalpy of Reaction
The enthalpy change associated with a chemical reaction.
Exothermic Process
A process in which a system releases heat to its surroundings.
First Law of Thermodynamics
Energy is conserved in any process. The change in internal energy, ?E, of a system in any process is equal to the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ?E = q + w.
Force
A push or pull.
Fossil Fuels
Coal, oil, and natural gas, which are presently our major sources of energy.
Fuel Value
The energy released when 1g of a substance is combusted.
Heat
The flow of energy from a body at higher temperature to one at lower temperature when they are placed in thermal contact.
Heat Capacity
The quantity of heat required to raise the temperate of a sample of mater by 1oC.
Hess’s Law
The concentration of a gas in a solution, Sg, is proportional to the pressure of gas over the solutions: Sg = kPg.
Internal Energy
The total energy possessed by a system. When a system undergoes a change, the change in internal energy, ?E, is defined as the heat, q, added to the system, plus the work, w, done on the system by its surroundings: ?E = q + w.
Joule
The SI united of energy, 1kg-m2/s2.
Kinetic Energy
The energy that an object possess by virtue of its motion.
Potential Energy
The energy that an object possesses as a result of its composition or its position with respect to another object.
Pressure-volume (P-V) Work
Work performed by expansion of a gas against a resisting pressure.
Renewable Energy Sources
Energy such as solar energy, wind energy, and hydroelectric energy derived from essentially inexhaustible sources.
Specific Heat (Cs)
The heat capacity of 1g of a substance; the heat required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1oC.
Standard Enthalpy Change (?Ho)
The change in enthalpy in a process when all reactants and products are in their stable forms at 1 atm pressure and a specified temperature commonly 25oC.
Standard Enthalpy of Formation (?Hof)
The change in enthalpy that accompanies the formation of one mole of a substance from its elements under standard conditions.
State Function
A property of a system that is determined by its state or condition and not by how it got to that state; its value is fixed when temperature, pressure, composition, and physical form are specified; P, V, T, E, and H are state functions.
Surroundings
In thermodynamics, everything that lies outside the system that we study.
System
In thermodynamics, the portion of the universe that we single out for study. We must be careful to state exactly what the system contains and what transfers of energy it may have with its surroundings.
Thermochemistry
The relationship between chemical reactions and energy changes.
Thermodynamics
The study of energy and its transformations.
Work
The movement of an object against some force.
Molar Heat Capacity
The amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of one mole of a substance by one degree.
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