K-state, Dr. Yasmin Patell

definition of chemistry
the study of the composition, structure, and behavior of matter
pure substance
a form of matter that bas a definite compositioun and distinct properties
definition of an element
a substance that cannot be seperated into simpilat substances, into simpliar substances by chemical means
definition of a compound
is a substance composed of atoms of 2 or more elements chemically, combined in fixed proportions

definition of homogeneous mixture

completely uniform at the particulate level and consists of one or more substances in the same place
definition of a heterogeneous mixture
a non-uniform at the particulate level and consists of one or more substances in different phases
Tera-

T

 

10^12

 

Giga-

G

 

10^9

Mega-

M

 

10^6

Kilo-

k

 

10^3

deci-

d

 

10^-1

centi-

c

 

10^-2

milli-

m

 

10^-3

micro-

μ

 

10^-6

nano-

n

 

10^-9

pico-

p

 

10^-12

definition of mass
measure of the quantity of matter(constant)
definition of weight
force that gravity exerts on an object(variable)

defintion of volume

SI derived unit for volume is cubic meter (m3)

 

Volume = cm= mL

the equation for density

Density= mass/volume

 d= m/v

is in the units of kg/m3

equation for converting

Fahernheit -> Celsius

C=(F-32) x 5/9

equation for converting

Celsius -> Fahrenheit

F= (9/5 x C) + 32

equation for converting

Celsius -> Kelvin

K = C + 273
what is accuracy?
how close a measurement is to the true value
What is precision?
how close a set of measurements are to each other
The Atomic # tells the _____
number of protons in the nucleus

The mass # tells the ______

number of protons and the number of neutrons in the nucleus
Isotopes are _____
atoms of the same element with different mass numbers. (same # of protons, different number of neutrons)
The definition of molecule
an aggregate of two or more atoms in a definite arrangement held togethor by chemical forces
What is the definition of a diatomic molecule?

it contains only two atoms

(H2, N2, HCl, CO, O2)

what is the definition of a polyatomic molecule?

it contains more than two atoms

(O3, H2O, NH3, CH4)

What is an ion?
it is an atom, or group of atoms, that has a net positive, or negative charge.

What are the 2 categories of an ion?

What are their individual definitions?

Cation and Anion

Cation- is an ion with a positive charge; metal, and loses electrons to form cations

Anion- is an ion with a negative charge; non-metal atoms gain electrons to form anions

What is a monatomic ion?

What is a polyatomic ion?

Mono- (one) contains only one atom

Na+,Cl, Ca2+, O2-, Al3-

 

Poly- (many) contains more than one atom

 OH, CN, NH4+, NO3

How many protons and electrons are in 2713 Al3+

Prontons- 13

Electrons- 10

What does the molecular formula show?

It shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance.

What is an empirical formula?
It shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance.
What is an ionic compound?

It is a compound consisting of a combination of cations and anions.

The formula is always the same as the empirical formula.

The sum of the charges on the cation(s) and anion(s) in each formula must equal zero.

Predict the charges of Groups IA, IIA, and IIIA.

IA +

IIA 2+

IIIA 3+

Predict the charges of anions(non-metals) VA, VIA, VIIA, and VIIIA

VA 3-

VIA 2-

VIIA –

VIIIA 0

 

the monotomic cation of Li is named what?

Lithium ion
What is the system used to notate that the metal can form more than one cation?
The Stock System

Properly name the following in the Stock system format:

Cu+

Cu2+

Fe2+

Fe3+

Copper I

Copper II

Iron II

Iron III

Polyatomic cations end with what suffix?

-ium

 

Ex: NH4+ is ammonium

Monotomic Anions end with what suffix?

-ide

What is the name of the monoatomic anion

 

N?

Nitride

What is the name of the monoatomic anion

 

P?

Phosphide

What is the name of the monoatomic anion

 

O?

Oxide

What is the name of the monoatomic anion

 

S?

sulfide

What is the name of the monoatomic anion

 

F?

fluoride

What is the name of the monoatomic anion

 

Cl?

Chloride

What is the name of the monoatomic anion

 

Br?

Bromide

What is the name of the monoatomic anion

 

I?

Iodide

Polyatomic Anion- SO42-

sulfate
Polyatomic Anion- SO32-
Sulfite
Polyatomic Anion- NO3
Nitrate
Polyatomic Anion- NO2
Nitrite
Polyatomic Anion- CN
Cyanide
Polyatomic Anion- CO32-
Carbonate
Polyatomic Anion- MnO4
Permanganate
Polyatomic Anion- PO43-
Phosphate
Polyatomic Anion- C2H3O2

Acetate

Polyatomic Anion- ClO3

Chlorate
Polyatomic Anion- Cr2O22-
Dichromate
Polyatomic Anion- HPO42-
Hydrogen Phosphate
Polyatomic Anion- ClO2
Chlorite

What is the rule for naming Ionic Compounds whose cation forms only one charge?

Name the metal cation first, followed by the non-metal anion

Name NaCl

Sodium chloride
Name KCN
Potassium Cyanide
Name Na2SO4
Sodium sulfate

Name Mg3(PO4)2

Magnesium Phosphate
Name Li2S

Lithium Sulfide

What are the rules of naming an Ionic Compound whose cation forms more than one charge- known as the Stock System? 

1.) Write the name of the cation first

2.) Write the charge on the cation as a Roman Numeral

3.) Write the name of the anion

Name – Fe2Cl

Iron II Chloride
Name – CuO2
Copper II Oxide
Name – Cu2Cl
Copper II Chloride
Name – Sn4O2
Tin IV Oxide

Name – Sn2O

Tin II Oxide

What is the difference between ionic and molecular compounds?

Ionic compounds have metal in the compound

Molecular compounds have no metal in the compound.

How do you name molecular compounds?

1.) Name the first element and add -ide to the stem of the name of the second element

2.) Indicate the number of each element by the use of greek prefixes.

Name – P4S3
Tetraphosphorous Trisulfide
Name – CO2
Carbon Dioxide
Name – CO
Carbon Monoxide

Name – N2O4

Dinitrogen Tetroxide
Name – SF6
Sulfur Hexafluoride

What makes an acid?

How do you name an acid?

It is a molecular compound that yields hydrogen ions, H+, when dissolved in water.

 

If (aq)"meaning aqueous solution" is at the end of the name, add Hydro- and Acid

 

HCl(aq) – Hydrochloric Acid

Name – HBr(aq)
Hydrobromic Acid
Name – HI(aq)
Hydroiodic Acid
Name – HF(aq)
Hydrofluoric Acid
Name – HCN
Hydrocyanic Acid

Name – H2S

Hydrosulfuric Acid
What is an oxoacid?

It is an acid that contains hydrogen, oxygen, and another element.

What happens if the suffix of the anion is -ate?       -ite?

If it is -ate, it becomes -ic.

If it is -ite, it becomes -ous.

Name – H2CO3
Carbonic Acid
Name – HNO4

Nitric Acid

Name – HNO3

Nitrous Acid

Name – H2SO3

Sulfuric Acid
Name – H3PO4

Phosphuric Acid

Name – HClO3

Chloric Acid
Name – HClO4
Perchloric Acid
Name – HClO2
Chlorous Acid
Name – HClO
Hypochlorous Acid
Name – ClO4
Perchlorate
Name – ClO3
Chlorate
Name – ClO2
Chlorite
Name – ClO
Hypochlorite
x

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