Kaplan MCAT: Gen Chem 2

Solubility Rules pertaining to….

 

1. alkali metal salts

2. nitrates

3. ammonium ion salts

4. carbonates, phosphates, sulfites

5. chlorides, bromides, iodides

  1. All salts of alkali metals are water saluble
  2. all nitrates are water soluble
  3. All salts of the ammonium ion (NH4+) are water soluble
  4. All carbonates (CO32-), phosphates (PO43-) and Sulfites (SO32-) are insoluble, except when complexed with alkali metals or ammonium ions
  5. All chlorides, bromides, and iodides are water soluble, except when they contain Ag+, Pb2+, and Hg2+

More solubility rules…

 

1.Metal oxides

2. Hydroxides

3. Sulfates

  1. All metal oxides are insoluble, with the exception of CaO, SrO, BaO, and alkali metal oxides.
  2. Hydroxides are insoluble, with the exception of Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, and alkali metal hydroxides
  3. All sufates are soluble, with the exception of those containing Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+

Electrolytes

Any solute whose solution conducts electricity. 

 

Can be strong or weak, depending on whether they dissociate completely or only partially (like acids and bases).  Strong acids/bases would be strong electrolytes. (weak a/b=weak electrolyte)

 

-Must be soluble and produce charge as result of dissolution

 

-Sugar is not– dissociates in water but does not create a charge.

 

HF= very weak; creates charge but barely dissociates.

 

HCl=strong electrolyte

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