KEY TERMS

ANION
A negatively charged ion such as Cl-, O2-, or SO42-
BENT
The shape of a molecule with two bonded atoms and two lone pairs
CATION
A positively charged ion such as Na+, Mg2+, Al3+, and NH4+
DIPOLE
The separation of positive and negative charges in a polar bond indicated by an arrow that is drawn from the more positive atom to the more negative atom
DIPOLE-DIPOLE ATTRACTIONS
Attractive forces between oppositely charged ends of polar molecules
DISPERSION FORCES
Weak dipole bonding that results from a momentary polarization of nonpolar molecules in a substance
DOUBLE BOND
A sharing of two pairs of electrons by two atoms
ELECTRONEGATIVITY
The relative ability of an element to attract electrons in a bond
FORMULA
The group of symbols and subscripts that represents the atoms or ions in a compound
HYDROGEN BOND
The attraction between a partially positive H atom and a strongly electronegative atom of F, O, or N
ION
An atom or group of atoms having an electrical charge because of a loss or gain of electrons
IONIC CHARGE
The difference between the number of protons (positive) and the number or electrons (negative) written in the upper right corner of the symbol for the element or polyatomic ion
MOLECULE
The smallest unit of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds
NONPOLAR COVALENT BOND
A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally between atoms
NONPOLAR MOLECULE
A molecule that has only nonpolar bonds or in which he bond dipoles cancel
OCTET
8 Valence Electrons
OCTET RULE
Elements in Groups 1A-7A (1,2,13-17) react with other elements by forming ionic or covalent bonds to produce a noble gas arrangement usually 8 electrons in the outer shell
POLAR COVALENT BOND
A covalent bond in which the electrons are shared unequally between atoms
POLAR MOLECULE
A molecule containing bond dipoles that do not cancel
POLYATOMIC ION
A group of covalently bonded nonmetal atoms that has an overall electrical charge
PYRAMIDAL
The shape of a molecule that has three bonded atoms and one lone pair around a central atom
TETRAHEDRAL
The shape of a molecule with four bonded atoms
TRIPLE BOND
A sharing of three pairs of electrons by two atoms
VALENCE-SHELL ELECTRON-PAIR REPULSION (VSEPR) THEORY
A theory that predicts the shape of a molecule by placing th electron pairs on a ventral atom as far apart as possible to minimize the mutual repulsion of the electrons
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