# Kinetics

 Initial Rate
 Indicates the rate of disappearance of a reactant right after the reactancts are mixed.
 Average Rate
 Indicated the rate of disappearance of a reactant over an extended period of time
 Instantaneous Rate
 Indicates the rate of disappearance of a reactant at a specific time during the course of a reaction
 Rate Constant
 The proportionality constant in a rate equation
 Overall Reaction Order
 Sum of the individual orders of the reactants
 Rate Law
 An equation that expresses the reaction rate as a function of a reactant concentration, product concentrations and temperature
 Arrhenius Equation
 k=Ae^-Ea/RT
 Reaction Order
 Exponent on the concentration terms in a rate equation which define how the rate is affected by the reaction ocncentration
 Half-Life
 The time required for a reactant’s concentration to reach one-half of its initial concentration
 Activation Energy
 Minimum energy that molecules must have to react
 Effective collisions
 A collision in which the particles meet with sufficient energy and an orientation that allows them to react
 Frequency factor
 The term (A)in Arrhenius’ equation and the product of the collision frequency (Z) and an orientation probability factor (p) that is specific for a reaction
 Transition State
 An unstable species formed in an effective collision of reactants that exists momentarily when the system is highest in energy and that can either form products or re-form reactants
 Activated Complex
 same as transition state: An unstable species formed in an effective collision of reactants that exists momentarily when the system is highest in energy and that can either form products or re-form reactants
 Reaction Energy Diagram
 A graph that shows the potential energy of a reacting system as it progresses from reactants to products
 Mechanism
 A series of steps in which a reaction occurs
 Molecularity
 The number of reactant particles involved in an elementary step
 Rate Determining (limiting) Step
 The slowest step in a reaction mechanism and therefore the step that limits the overall rate
 Catalyst
 A substance that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy and without being used up in the process
 Homogeneous catalyst
 A catalyst (gas, liquid, or soluble solid) that exists in the same phase as the reactants
 Heterogeneous catalyst
 A catalyst that occurs in a different phase from the reactants, usually a solid interacting with gaseous or liquid reactants
 Enzyme
 A biological macromolecule (usually a protein) that acts as a catalyst and performs with spectacular efficiency and specificity
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