Kinetics

Initial Rate
Indicates the rate of disappearance of a reactant right after the reactancts are mixed.
Average Rate
Indicated the rate of disappearance of a reactant over an extended period of time
Instantaneous Rate
Indicates the rate of disappearance of a reactant at a specific time during the course of a reaction
Rate Constant
The proportionality constant in a rate equation
Overall Reaction Order
Sum of the individual orders of the reactants
Rate Law
An equation that expresses the reaction rate as a function of a reactant concentration, product concentrations and temperature
Arrhenius Equation
k=Ae^-Ea/RT
Reaction Order
Exponent on the concentration terms in a rate equation which define how the rate is affected by the reaction ocncentration
Half-Life
The time required for a reactant’s concentration to reach one-half of its initial concentration
Activation Energy
Minimum energy that molecules must have to react
Effective collisions
A collision in which the particles meet with sufficient energy and an orientation that allows them to react
Frequency factor
The term (A)in Arrhenius’ equation and the product of the collision frequency (Z) and an orientation probability factor (p) that is specific for a reaction
Transition State
An unstable species formed in an effective collision of reactants that exists momentarily when the system is highest in energy and that can either form products or re-form reactants
Activated Complex
same as transition state: An unstable species formed in an effective collision of reactants that exists momentarily when the system is highest in energy and that can either form products or re-form reactants
Reaction Energy Diagram
A graph that shows the potential energy of a reacting system as it progresses from reactants to products
Mechanism
A series of steps in which a reaction occurs
Molecularity
The number of reactant particles involved in an elementary step
Rate Determining (limiting) Step
The slowest step in a reaction mechanism and therefore the step that limits the overall rate
Catalyst
A substance that increases the rate of a reaction by lowering the activation energy and without being used up in the process
Homogeneous catalyst
A catalyst (gas, liquid, or soluble solid) that exists in the same phase as the reactants
Heterogeneous catalyst
A catalyst that occurs in a different phase from the reactants, usually a solid interacting with gaseous or liquid reactants
Enzyme
A biological macromolecule (usually a protein) that acts as a catalyst and performs with spectacular efficiency and specificity
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