L to J vocab

absolute zero
the zero point on the kelvin temperature scale, equivalent to -273.15C
accepted value
a quantity used by general agreement of the scientific community
accuracy
the closeness of a measurement to the true value of what is being measured
acid
a compound that produces hydgrogen ions in solution
activity series
a list of elements in order of decreasing activity
actual yield
the amount of product that forms whe a reaction is carried out in the labratory
allotrope
one of two or more differnet molecular forms of an element in the same physical state
alloy
a misture composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal
amplitude
the hight of a wave’s crest
anion
any atom or group of atoms with a negative charge
aqueous solution
water that contains dissolved substances
atomic emission spectrum
the pattern formed whn light passes through a prism or diffraction grating to separate it into the different frequencies of light it contains
atomic mass
the weighted average of the masses of the isotopes of an element
atomic mass unit
a unit of mass equal to one-twelfth the mass of carbon-12 atom
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom of an element
atomic orbital
a mathematical expression describing the probability of finding an electron at various locations
atomic radius
one-half the distance between the nuclei of two atoms of the same element when the atoms are joined
aufbau principle
the rule that electrons occupy the orbitals of lowest energy first
avagadro’s number
the number representative particles contained in one mole of a substance
balanced equation
a chemical equation in which mass is conserved
base
a compound that produces hydroxide ions in solution
binary compound
a compound composed of two elements
bioling point elevation
the difference in temperature between the boiling point of a solution and the boiling point of the pure solvent
bonding orbital
a molecular orbital that can be occupied by two electrons of covalent bond
boyle’s law
for a given mass of gas at constant temp, the volume of the gas varies inversely with pressure
brownian motion
the chaotic movement of colloidal particles, caused by collision with particles of the solvent in which they are dispersed
calorie
the quantity of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 g fo pure water
calorimeter
an insulated device used to measure the absorption or release of heat in chemical or physical processes
calorimetry
the precise measurement of heat flow out of a system for chemical and physical processes
catalyst
a substance that increases the rate of reaction by lowering the activation-energy barrier
cathode ray
a stream of electrons produced at the negative electrode of a tube containing a gas at low pressure
cation
any atom or group of atoms with a positve charge
charle’s law
the volume of a fixed mass of gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature if the pressure is kept constant
chemical equation
an expression representing a chemical reaction
chemical formula
an expression that indicates the number and type of atoms present in the smallest representative unit of substance
coefficients
a small whole number that appears in front of a formula in a balanced chemical equation
colligative properties
a property of a solution that depends only upon the number of solute particles, and not upon their identities
combined gas law
the law that describes the relationship among the pressure, temperature, and volume of an enclosed gas
combustion
a chemical change in which an element or a compound reacts with oxygen, often producing energy in the form of heat and light
complete ionic equation
an equation that shows dissolved ionic compounds as dissociated free ions
composition
compressibility
a measure of how much the volume of matter decreases under pressure
concentrated solution
a solution containing a large amount of solute
concentration
a measurement of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a given quantity of solvent
conversion factor
a ratio of equivalent measurements used to convert a quantity from one unit to another
coordinate covalent bond
a covalent bond in which one atom contributes both bonding electrons
coordination number
the number of ions of oppisite charge that surround each ion in a crystal
covalent bond
a bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
decomposition
a chemical change in which a single compound is broken down into two or more simpler products
diatomic molecule
a molecule consisting of two atoms
diffusion
the tendancy of molecules to move toward areas of lower concentration until the concentration is uniform throughout
dilute solution
a solution that contains a small amount of solute
dimensional analysis
a technique of problem-solving that uses the units that are part of a measurement to help solve the problem
dipole
a molecule that has two poles, or regions with opposite charges
dispersion force
attractions between molecules caused by the electron motion on one molecule affectin g the electron motion on the other trhough electrical forces
distillation
a process used to separate dissolved solids from a liquid, which is biled to produce a vapor that is then condencsed into a liquid
double covalent bond
a bond in which two atoms share two pairs of electrons
double displacement
a chemical change that involves an exchange of positive ions between tow compuonds
effusion
the process that occurs when a gas escapes through a tiny hole in its container
electrolyte
a compound that conducts an electric current when it is in a an aqueous solution or in the molten state
electron configuration
the arrangement of electrons of an atom in its ground state into various orbitals around the nuclei of atoms
electron dot diagram
a notation that depicts valence electrons as dots areound the atomic symbol of the element
electronegativity
the ability of an atom to attract electrons when the atom is in a compound
empirical formula
a formula with the lowest whole number ratio of elements in a compound
endothermic process
a process that absorbs heat from the surroundings
energy levels
the specific energies an electron in an atom or other system can have
enthalpy
the heat content of a system at constant pressure
error
the difference between the accepted value and the experimental value
excess reactant
a reactant present in a quantity that is more than sufficent to react with a limiting reactant
exothermic process
a process that releases heat to its surroundings
experimental value
a quantitative value measured during an experiment
extensive property
a property that depends on the amount of matter in a sample
filtration
a process that separates a solid from the liquid in a heterogeneous mixture
formula unit
the lowest whole number ratio of ions in an ionic compound
freezing point depression
the difference in temperature between the freezing point of a solution and the freeaing point of the pure solvent
frequency
the number of wave cycles that pass a given point per unit of time
Gay-Lussac’s Law
the pressure of a gas is directly proportional to the kelvin temperature if the volume is constant
ground state
the lowest possible energy of an electron described by quantum mechanics
heat
energy that transfers from one object to another because of a temperature diffeence between teh objects
heisenberg uncertainty
it is impossible to know exactly both the velocity and the positio of a particle at the same time
Hund’s Rule
electrons occpy orbitals of the same energy in a way that makes the number of electrons with the same spin direction as large as possible
hydrate
a compound that has a specific number of water molecules bound to each formula unit
hybridization
the mixing of several atomic orbitals to form the same total number of equivalent hybrid orbitals
hydrogen bonds
attractive forces in which a hydrogen covalentlybonded to a very electronegative atom is also weakly bonded to an unshared electron pair of another electronegative atom
intensive property
a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter
intensive property
a property that depends on the type of matter in a sample, not the amount of matter
ion
an atom or group of atoms that has a positive or negative charge
ionic bond
the electrostatic attraction that binds oppositely charged ions together
ionization energy
the energy required to remove an electron from an atom in its gaseous state
isotope
atoms of the same element that hve the same atomic number but different atomic masses due to a different number of nuetrons
joule
the SI unit of energy
law of conservation of energy
in any chemical or physical process, energy is neither created nor destroyed
law of definite proportions
in samples of any chemical compound,the masses of elements are always in the same proportion
law of conservation of mass
in any physical change or chemical reaction, mass is conserved
law of multiple proportions
whenever two elements form more than one compound
limiting reactant
any reactant that is used up first in a chemical reaction
mass number
the total number of the amount of matter that an object contains
melting point
the temperature at which a substance changes from a solid to a liquid
metallic bond
the force of attractino that holds metals together
molality
the concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the number of moles of solute dissolved in 1 kilogram of solvent
molar mass
a term used to refer to the massof a mole of any substance
molar volume
the volume occupied by 1 mole of a gas at standard temperature and pressure
molarity
the concentration of solute in a solution expressed as the numberof moles of solute dissolved in 1 liter of solution
mole
the amount of a substance that contains 6.o2x1023 representative particles of that substance
molecule
a neutral group of atoms joined together by covalent bonds
monatomic ion
a single atom with a positive or negative charge resulting from the loss or gain of one or more valence electrons
net ionic equation
an equation for a reaction in solution showing only those particles that are directly involved in the chemical change
nonpolar covalent bond
a covalent bond in which the electrons are shared equally by two atoms
octet rule
atoms react by gaining or losing electrons so as to acquire the stable electron structure of a noble gas, usually eight valence electrons
pascal
the SI unit of pressure
Paulie exclusion principle
an atomic orbital may describe at most two electrons, each with opposite spin direction
percent composition
the percent by mass of each element in a compound
percent error
the percent that a measured value differs from the accepted value
percent yeild
the ratio of the actual yield to the theoretical yield for a chemical reaction expressed as a percentage
periodic law
when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number, there is a periodic repetition of their physical and chemical properties
phase
any part of a sample with uniform composition and properties
photon
a quantum of light
pi bond
a covalent bond in which the bonding elctrons are most likely to be found in sausage-shaped regions above and below the bond axis of the bonded axis
polar bond
a covalent bond between atomsin which the electrons are shared unequally
polar molecule
a molecule in which one side of the molcule is slightly negative and the opposite side is slightly positive
polyatomic ion
a tightly bound group of atoms that behaves as unit and has a positive or negative change
precipitate
a solid that forms and settles out of a liquid mixture
product
a substance produced in a chemical reaction
quantum
the amount of energy needed to move an electron from one energy level to another
quantum mechanical model
the modern description, primarily mathematical, of the behavior of electrons in atoms
reactant
a substance present at the start of a reaction
representative particle
the smallest unit into which a substance can be broken down without a change in composition, usually atoms, molecules, or ions
saturated solution
a solution containing the maximum amount of solute for a given amount of solvent at a constant temperature and pressure
sigma bond
a bond formed when two atomic orbitals combine for form a molecular orbital that is symmetrical around the axis connecting the two atomic nuclei
significant digits
all the digits that can be known precisely in a measurement, plus a last estimated digit
single covalent bond
a bond formed when two atoms share a pair of electrons
single displacement reaction
a chemical change in which one element replaces a second element in a compound
skeletal equation
a chemical equation that does not indicate the relative amounts of reactants and products
solubility
the amount of a substance that dissolves in a given quantity of solvent at specified conditions of temperature and pressure to produce a saturated solution
solute
dissolved particles in a solution
solution
a homogeneous mixture
solvent
the dissolving medium in a solution
specific heat
the amount of heat needed to increase the temperature of 1 g of a substance 1 C
spectator ion
an ion that is not directly involved in a chemical reaction
spectrum
wavelengths of visible light that are separated when a beam of light passes through a prism
standard temperature and pressure
the conditions under which the volume of a gas is usually measured
stoichiometry
that portion of chemistry dealing with numerical relationships in chemical reactions
structural formula
a chemical formula that shows the arrangement of atoms in a molecule or a polyatomic ion
supersaturated solution
a solution that contains more solute than it can theoretically hold at a given temperature
surface tension
an inward force that tends to minimize the surface area of a liquid
theoretical yield
the amount of product that could form during a reaction calculated from a balanced chemical equation
triple covalent bond
a covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared by two atoms
Tyndall effect
scattering of light by particles in a colloid or suspension, which causes a beam of light to become visible
unsaturated solution
a solution that contains less solute than a saturated solution at a given temperature and pressure
valence electron
an electron in the highest occupied energy level of an atom
van der waals force
the two weakest intermolecular attractions–dispersion interactions and dipole forces
vapor
describes the gaseous state of a substance that is generally a liquid or solid at room temperature
vapor pressure
a measure of the force exerted by a gas above a liquid in a sealed container
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