L2 Chemical Reactivity

Effect of increased pressure on equilibrium (gas system)
Pressure increase is counteracted by decreasing number of gas particles in equilibrium. Thus, equilibrium shifts to the side with smallest number of moles of gas.
Effect of increased temperature on equilibrium
Equilibrium favours the endothermic reaction
In equilibrium reactions, enthalpy change refers to…
Forward reaction
Addition of unreactive gases/catalyst does what to position of equilibrium?
Has no effect
If equilibrium constant is large, what does that say about position of equilibrium?
It means there is a large concentration of products compared to reactants so equilibrium favours the forward direction
Equilibrium constant
products (to the power of n)
—————————–
reactants (to the power of n)
Increase concentration of products does what to equilibrium?
Favours reverse direction
Increase concentration of reactants does what to equilibrium?
Favours forward reaction
An acid is…..
A base is……
Acid: PROTON DONOR
Base: PROTON ACCEPTER
Acid-base reaction
A reaction where a proton is donated and accepted
Strong acids dissociate partially/fully?
FULLY
Weak acids dissociate partially/fully?
PARTIALLY
What are alkalis?
Soluble bases that form OH- ions in solution
Acid + Metal oxide =
metal compound + water
Acid + Metal hydroxide =
metal compound + water
Acids and bases can/cannot conduct electricity?
CAN – they contain ions that are free to move
Acid + metal =
metal compound + hydrogen gas
Acid + carbonate =
metal compound + water + carbon dioxide gas
Bases turn litmus..
BLUE
Acids turn litmus…
RED
Hydrogen ions attach to water molecules to form
H3O+ ions
Strong acid:
– conduct better b/c more ions in a given volume
– lower pH b/c greater concentration of H3O+ ions
– react faster and more vigorously than weak acids
Strong base:
– Has a greater tendency to accept protons than weak bases
Low pH =
high concentration of H3O+ ions
calculating pH of strong base
pH = -log [H3O+ concentration]
only a strong base because it fully dissociates
Kw
[concentration of H3O+ ions] x [concentrations OH- ions] = 1 x10-14
x

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