Lab – Vocab

accuracy
difference between your measured value of a property and its true value
precision
the range of a repeated set of measurements
systematic ucertainty
has a definite cause and causes the results of a series of measurements to be all high or all low
random uncertainty
affects the precision of the measurement by causing the data to be scattered around a mean value
mistake
a bad, careless, or sloppy reading. NOT AN ERROR OR UNCERTAINTY
standard deviation
the uncertainty of the average value of the measurements
experimental uncertainty of a measurement on a measuring scale
plus/minus half the smallest division on the scale
intensive property
a property that is independent of the amount of substance present
extensive property
properties dependent on the amount of material used and thus cannot be used to characterize a substance (mass & volume)
density
mass of a substance divided by the volume it occupies
specific heat capacity
the amount of heat that is required to change the temperature of 1 gram of substance 1 degree celsius

specific heat capacity = heat/(mass * delta T) = Joules/g degrees celsius

calorimeter
insulated container that prevents heat loss to or absorption of heat from the outside surroundings
exothermic
reaction gives up heat to the environment so the temperature rises
mole fraction
mole fraction = number of moles A/ (number of moles A + number of moles B)
molecular equation
all substances written as undissociated compounds
total ionic equation
all substances written as ions, as they exist in water
spectator ions
ions that are not involved in a chemical reaction
net ionic equation
the total ionic equation with the spectator ions removed
oxidation
atom loses an electron
reduction
atom gains an electron
reducing agent
the reactant that loses electrons
oxidizing agent
reactant that gains electrons
oxidation number
hypothetical charge assigned to an atom
combination reaction
A + B -> AB
decomposition reaction
AB -> A + B
single-replacement reaction
A + BC -> AB + C
x

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