# Lab – Vocab

 accuracy
 difference between your measured value of a property and its true value
 precision
 the range of a repeated set of measurements
 systematic ucertainty
 has a definite cause and causes the results of a series of measurements to be all high or all low
 random uncertainty
 affects the precision of the measurement by causing the data to be scattered around a mean value
 mistake
 standard deviation
 the uncertainty of the average value of the measurements
 experimental uncertainty of a measurement on a measuring scale
 plus/minus half the smallest division on the scale
 intensive property
 a property that is independent of the amount of substance present
 extensive property
 properties dependent on the amount of material used and thus cannot be used to characterize a substance (mass & volume)
 density
 mass of a substance divided by the volume it occupies
 specific heat capacity
 the amount of heat that is required to change the temperature of 1 gram of substance 1 degree celsius specific heat capacity = heat/(mass * delta T) = Joules/g degrees celsius
 calorimeter
 insulated container that prevents heat loss to or absorption of heat from the outside surroundings
 exothermic
 reaction gives up heat to the environment so the temperature rises
 mole fraction
 mole fraction = number of moles A/ (number of moles A + number of moles B)
 molecular equation
 all substances written as undissociated compounds
 total ionic equation
 all substances written as ions, as they exist in water
 spectator ions
 ions that are not involved in a chemical reaction
 net ionic equation
 the total ionic equation with the spectator ions removed
 oxidation
 atom loses an electron
 reduction
 atom gains an electron
 reducing agent
 the reactant that loses electrons
 oxidizing agent
 reactant that gains electrons
 oxidation number
 hypothetical charge assigned to an atom
 combination reaction
 A + B -> AB
 decomposition reaction
 AB -> A + B
 single-replacement reaction
 A + BC -> AB + C
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