Light and Sound

Perception
Constant experience
Perception example
awareness or understanding of stimuli (light, sound) within our environment
The Scientific Method steps
1. Observation or question
2. Hypothesis
3. New prediction or model
4. Observation or experiment
5. Analysis
If Hypothesis accepted(less than 5% error) if rejected (greater than 5% error). If hypothesis rejected, becomes a theory. If accepted, hypothesis about original question.
Environmental Stimulus
all things in our environment we can potentially perceive
Attended Stimulus
things in our environment we pay attention to
Transduction
transformation of one energy into another form of energy
Neuronal Processing
electrical signals generated by cells within retina processed through networks of neurons with brain
Recognition
ability to place an object in a category, giving object meaning
Action
doesn’t have beginning or ending. includes motor activities like moving head or eyes. constantly changes.
Knowledge
any information that perceiver brings to perceptual process
Fundamental quantities
Mass, Time, Length or Distance
Time
how long we wait
Length
distance between two points
Mass
how much material is in an object
Operational definitions
tell us how we measure things
Basic quantities
length, time, mass, and charge
Derived Quanties
Velocity, Displacement, and Acceleration
Newton’s 1st law
object in motion stays in motion
Newton’s 2nd law
acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on an object and inversely proportional to the mass of an object
Net force
equal to mass times the acceleration
Newton’s 3rd law
force comes in pairs which have equal magnitude (strength) but are opposite in direction
Work
amount of energy and equal to force multiplied by displacement
Pressure
force acting upon a unit of area
Temperature
kinetic energy of air molecules
Resonance
if we force an oscillator at its natural frequency, amplitude becomes larger
Resistance
damping, oscillation changes and dries out by applying periodic force, can overcome damping
Longitudinal wave
back and forth wave from medium
Compression
local region of higher pressure in a fluid
Rarefaction
local region of lower pressure in a fluid
Medium
transfer energy from one location to another through waves
Disturbance
oscillator (creates waves) moves atoms in air particles
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