# Light and Sound

 Perception
 Constant experience
 Perception example
 awareness or understanding of stimuli (light, sound) within our environment
 The Scientific Method steps
 1. Observation or question2. Hypothesis3. New prediction or model4. Observation or experiment5. AnalysisIf Hypothesis accepted(less than 5% error) if rejected (greater than 5% error). If hypothesis rejected, becomes a theory. If accepted, hypothesis about original question.
 Environmental Stimulus
 all things in our environment we can potentially perceive
 Attended Stimulus
 things in our environment we pay attention to
 Transduction
 transformation of one energy into another form of energy
 Neuronal Processing
 electrical signals generated by cells within retina processed through networks of neurons with brain
 Recognition
 ability to place an object in a category, giving object meaning
 Action
 doesn’t have beginning or ending. includes motor activities like moving head or eyes. constantly changes.
 Knowledge
 any information that perceiver brings to perceptual process
 Fundamental quantities
 Mass, Time, Length or Distance
 Time
 how long we wait
 Length
 distance between two points
 Mass
 how much material is in an object
 Operational definitions
 tell us how we measure things
 Basic quantities
 length, time, mass, and charge
 Derived Quanties
 Velocity, Displacement, and Acceleration
 Newton’s 1st law
 object in motion stays in motion
 Newton’s 2nd law
 acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net force acting on an object and inversely proportional to the mass of an object
 Net force
 equal to mass times the acceleration
 Newton’s 3rd law
 force comes in pairs which have equal magnitude (strength) but are opposite in direction
 Work
 amount of energy and equal to force multiplied by displacement
 Pressure
 force acting upon a unit of area
 Temperature
 kinetic energy of air molecules
 Resonance
 if we force an oscillator at its natural frequency, amplitude becomes larger
 Resistance
 damping, oscillation changes and dries out by applying periodic force, can overcome damping
 Longitudinal wave
 back and forth wave from medium
 Compression
 local region of higher pressure in a fluid
 Rarefaction
 local region of lower pressure in a fluid
 Medium
 transfer energy from one location to another through waves
 Disturbance
 oscillator (creates waves) moves atoms in air particles
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