Liquids

Evaporation
escape of molecules from the liquid to the gas phase; AKA vaporization
Sublimation
phase change from solid to gas that bypasses the liquid state
Condensation
molecules in the gas phase striking the surface of a liquid and returning to the liquid phase
Vapor Pressure
pressure exerted by a vapor in equilibrium with its liquid phase
Vapor Pressure
independent of quantity; increases with temperature; depends on the strength of attraction between molecules in the liquid state
Volatile Liquids
very weak attractive forces between molecules; evaporate very rapidly and have high vapor pressures
Barometer
used to measure vapor pressure; difference in height relative to vacuum provides vapor pressure of liquid
Surface Tension
increases with increasing attractive interactions between molecules
Capillary Action
spontaneous rise of a liquid in a narrow tube
Capillary Action
happens when the cohesive forces between molecules are less than the adhesive forces between liquid and container
Convex Meniscus
adhesive forces are less than cohesive forces
Concave Meniscus
adhesive forces are greater than cohesive forces
Boiling Point
temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to the external pressure above the liquid
Boiling Point
higher at sea level than above sea level
Freezing Point
temperature at which the solid phase of a substance is in equilibrium with its liquid phase; AKA melting point
Heat of Fusion
energy required to change 1g of a solid at its melting point to a liquid
Heat of Vaporization
energy required to change 1g of a liquid to vapor at its normal boiling point
Heat of Fusion
is 335J/g for water
Heat of Vaporization
is 2259J/g for water
Intermolecular Forces
attractive forces between molecules; allow for the formation of liquids and solids
London-Dispersion Forces
weakest intermolecular force
Dipole-Dipole Interactions
medium strength intermolecular force
Hydrogen Bonding
strongest intermolecular force; still weaker than intramolecular forces
Intermolecular Forces
strength of this determines whether a compound has a high or low melting and boiling point- and thus whether it is a solid, liquid or gas at a given temp
Dipole-Dipole Interactions
when polar molecules are put together they will align to permit interaction between oppositely polarized portions of the molecules
Hydrogen Bonding
to be formed, a compound must have covalent bonds between H and F,O or N
London Dispersion Forces
interactions between nonpolar molecules and noble gases; gets stronger in much larger molecules (by molar mass)
Intermolecular Forces
the stronger these are, the higher the boiling and melting point
Hydrates
solids that contain water molecules as part of their crystalline structure
Hydrates
named by placing a prefix corresponding to the number of water molecules, followed by hydrate
Water
colorless, odorless, tasteless; high boiling point, high heat of fusion/ vaporization due to hydrogen bonding
Water
more dense in liquid than solid phase
Osmosis
process by which water flows through a membrane from a region of more pure water to a region of less pure water
Semipermeable Membranes
allow water and small molecules to pass through, but ions and large molecules cannot
Osmosis
passage of water and small molecules across a semipermeable membrane from lower solute to higher solute concentration
Tonicity
the salinity of a solution
Isotonic
a 0.9% saline solution; same salinity as blood plasma
Hypotonic
causes rbc’s to lyse (swell) due to osmosis; less saline than blood plasma
Hypertonic
causes rbc’s to crenate (shrink) due to osmosis; more saline than bloop plasma
Osmostic Pressure
pressure that prevents the flow of additional solvent into a solution on one side of a semipermeable membrane
Reverse Osmosis
process by which water floes through a membrane from a region of less pure water to a region of more pure water, due to the presence of an external stimulus
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