Matter

 3 things about the kinetic theory of matter?
 a. Assumes that all the particles in a substance are in constant motionb. State of matter is determined by amount of motion and spacing between particlesc. Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy in a substance
 what is temperature?
 the measure of the average kinetic energy in a substance
 Compare the three common states of matter in terms of the kinetic theory.
 a. Solid: particles are closely packed and vibrating slightlyb. Liquid: particles are further apart than solids; slip and slide aroundc. Gas: particles are very far apart and zip around
 diffusion and effusion.
 a. Diffusion: the movement of particles from areas of high concentration to low concentration. Effusion: diffusion of a gas out of its container
 what is gas pressure?
 a force per unit area exerted by the collision of gas particles against the side of its container
 Graham’s Law of Effusion equation
 rate A/rate B = square root MB / square root MA
 mm Hg
 Torricelli measured the height of a column of mercury that was in equilibrium with gravity. 760 mm Hg
 Dalton’s law of partial pressures
 a. The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each gas.
 Torr
 same as mm Hg760 torr
 Kilopascal (KPa)
 SI unit for pressure101.3 kPa
 atmospheres
 standard pressure. 1 atm
 mm Hg: torr: Kpa: atm
 760: 760: 101.3: 1
 STP
 standard temperature and pressure.set of environmental conditions by which we can compare gases.0 degrees C, 1 atm.(273 K and 101.3 kPa)
 London dispersion forces
 force of attraction created by the collision of two molecules which induces a dipole. weakest force.
 dipole-dipole forces
 when 2 polar molecules are attracted to each other
 hydrogen bonding
 same as dipole-dipole, but one of the atoms is Hydrogen
 fluidity
 ability to flow. also applies to gases
 viscosity
 resistance to flow. inversely proportional to temperature
 density
 much higher than gases. much less compressible.
 surface tension
 attraction of particles toward the center of a liquid
 surfactant
 substance that disrupts surface tension
 capillarity
 tendency for a liquid to stick to the sides of its container
 density of solids is ______________ than liquids
 much denser
 Crystalline solids
 particles are arranged in a repeating geometric pattern
 unit cell
 simplest unit of the crystalline solid
 cubic
 all sides equal, all angles 90
 tetragonal
 2 sides equal, all angles 90
 orthorhombic
 no sides equal, all angles 90
 rhombohedral
 all sides equal, all angles equal, no angles 90
 lattice
 multiple unit cells together
 amorphous solids
 particles arranged randomly. aka supercooled liquids because they exhibit flow.
 freezing
 removal of all energy from liquid causes the particles to slow down and get closer. freezing pt water: 0
 melting
 increase in energy causes particles to move faster and spread apart. melting pt water: 0
 molar heat of fusion
 amount of energy needed to convert 1 mol from liquid to solid (or vice versa) at its melting/freezing point
 vaporization
 transition from liquid to gas
 evaporation
 molecules on the surface of the liquid gain enough energy to break off from the rest of the liquid. can happen at room temperature
 boiling
 vapor pressure of the liquid must exceed the atmospheric pressure. boiling pt water: 100
 condensation
 transition from gas to liquid. condensation pt: 100
 molar heat of vaporization
 the amount of energy needed to convert 1 mol of any liquid to a gas at its boiling temperature. applies to vaporization and condensation
 sublimation
 transition from solid to gas
 deposition
 gas to solid without going through liquid
 triple point
 temperature and pressure at which all three states of matter are in equilibrium
 critical point
 critical temperature and pressure of a substance
 critical temperature
 temperature beyond which no amount of pressure can force a gas back into a liquid
 critical pressure
 when a substance is at its critical temperature, it is the minimum amount of pressure needed to make it a liquid
x

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