Matter

3 things about the kinetic theory of matter?
a. Assumes that all the particles in a substance are in constant motion
b. State of matter is determined by amount of motion and spacing between particles
c. Temperature is the measure of the average kinetic energy in a substance
what is temperature?
the measure of the average kinetic energy in a substance
Compare the three common states of matter in terms of the kinetic theory.
a. Solid: particles are closely packed and vibrating slightly
b. Liquid: particles are further apart than solids; slip and slide around
c. Gas: particles are very far apart and zip around
diffusion and effusion.
a. Diffusion: the movement of particles from areas of high concentration to low concentration. Effusion: diffusion of a gas out of its container
what is gas pressure?
a force per unit area exerted by the collision of gas particles against the side of its container
Graham’s Law of Effusion equation
rate A/rate B = square root MB / square root MA
mm Hg
Torricelli measured the height of a column of mercury that was in equilibrium with gravity. 760 mm Hg
Dalton’s law of partial pressures
a. The total pressure of a mixture of gases is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of each gas.
Torr
same as mm Hg
760 torr
Kilopascal (KPa)
SI unit for pressure
101.3 kPa
atmospheres
standard pressure. 1 atm
mm Hg: torr: Kpa: atm
760: 760: 101.3: 1
STP
standard temperature and pressure.
set of environmental conditions by which we can compare gases.
0 degrees C, 1 atm.
(273 K and 101.3 kPa)
London dispersion forces
force of attraction created by the collision of two molecules which induces a dipole. weakest force.
dipole-dipole forces
when 2 polar molecules are attracted to each other
hydrogen bonding
same as dipole-dipole, but one of the atoms is Hydrogen
fluidity
ability to flow. also applies to gases
viscosity
resistance to flow. inversely proportional to temperature
density
much higher than gases. much less compressible.
surface tension
attraction of particles toward the center of a liquid
surfactant
substance that disrupts surface tension
capillarity
tendency for a liquid to stick to the sides of its container
density of solids is ______________ than liquids
much denser
Crystalline solids
particles are arranged in a repeating geometric pattern
unit cell
simplest unit of the crystalline solid
cubic
all sides equal, all angles 90
tetragonal
2 sides equal, all angles 90
orthorhombic
no sides equal, all angles 90
rhombohedral
all sides equal, all angles equal, no angles 90
lattice
multiple unit cells together
amorphous solids
particles arranged randomly. aka supercooled liquids because they exhibit flow.
freezing
removal of all energy from liquid causes the particles to slow down and get closer. freezing pt water: 0
melting
increase in energy causes particles to move faster and spread apart. melting pt water: 0
molar heat of fusion
amount of energy needed to convert 1 mol from liquid to solid (or vice versa) at its melting/freezing point
vaporization
transition from liquid to gas
evaporation
molecules on the surface of the liquid gain enough energy to break off from the rest of the liquid. can happen at room temperature
boiling
vapor pressure of the liquid must exceed the atmospheric pressure. boiling pt water: 100
condensation
transition from gas to liquid. condensation pt: 100
molar heat of vaporization
the amount of energy needed to convert 1 mol of any liquid to a gas at its boiling temperature. applies to vaporization and condensation
sublimation
transition from solid to gas
deposition
gas to solid without going through liquid
triple point
temperature and pressure at which all three states of matter are in equilibrium
critical point
critical temperature and pressure of a substance
critical temperature
temperature beyond which no amount of pressure can force a gas back into a liquid
critical pressure
when a substance is at its critical temperature, it is the minimum amount of pressure needed to make it a liquid
x

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