Matter and Energy



Amorphous:

 

 A type of solid matter in which atoms or molecules do not have long-range order (e.g., glass and plastic).

 

 

Atoms:

 

 

The smallest identifiable unit of an element.

 

 

calorie (cal):

 

 

the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1 °C.

 

 

Calorie (Cal):

 

 

 An energy unit equivalent to 1000 little-c calories

 

 

Celsius (C) scale:

 

  A temperature scale often used by scientists.  On this scale, water freezes at 0 °C and boils at 100 °C at 1 atm pressure.  Room temperature is approximately 22 °C.

 

 

Chemical change:


 

A change in which matter changes its composition.

 

 

Chemical energy: 

 

 

The energy associated with chemical changes. 

 

 

Chemical property:


 

Properties that a substance can display only through changing its composition.

 

 

Chemical reaction:

 

 The process by which one or more substances transform into different substances via a chemical change.  Chemical reactions often emit or absorb energy.

 

 

Compound:


 

A substance composed of two or more elements in fixed, definite proportions.

 

 

Compressible:


 Able to occupy a smaller volume when subjected to increased pressure.  Gasses are compressible because in the gas phase, atoms or molecules are widely separated.

 

 

Crystalline:


  A type of solid matter with atoms or molecules arranged in a well-ordered, three-dimensional array with long-range, repeating order (e.g., salt and diamond).

 

 

Decanting:


 

The act of carefully pouring off one substance from another (as in pouring the oil off water).

 

 

Distillation: 

 

 

The process in which a mixture is heated to boil off the more volatile (easily vaporized) liquid.

 

 

Electrical energy: 

 


Energy associated with the flow of electric charge.

 

 

Element: 


 

A substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances.

 

 

Endothermic:


 

Describes a process that absorbs heat energy. 

 

 

Energy: 

 

 

The capacity to do work.

 

 

Exothermic:

 

 

Describes a process that releases heat energy.

 

 

Fahrenheit (F) scale:


 The temperature scale that is most familiar in the United States; water freezes at 32 °F and boils at 212 °F at 1 atm pressure.

 

 

Filtration:



The process of pouring a mixture though filter paper to separate the solids from the liquid.

 

 

Gas:

 

 

A state of matter in which atoms or molecules are widely separated and free to move relative to one another.

 

 

Heat: 

 

 

The transfer or exchange of thermal energy caused by a temperature difference.

 

 

Heat capacity: 

 

 

The quantity of heat energy required to change the temperature of a given amount of substance by 1 °C.

 

 

Heterogeneous mixture: 

 

A mixture, such as oil and water, that has two or more regions with different compositions.

 

 

Homogeneous mixture:



 A mixture, such as salt water, that has the same composition throughout.

 

 

Kelvin (K) scale :

The temperature scale that assigns 0 K to the coldest temperature possible, absolute zero (-273 °C or -459 °F), the temperature at which molecular motion stops.  The size of the kelvin is identical to that of the Celsius degree. 

 

 

Kilowatt-hour (kWh):


 

A unit of energy equal to 3.6 million joules.

 

 

Kinetic energy:


 

Energy associated with the motion of an object. 

 

 

Law of Conservation of Energy: 

A law stating that energy can be neither created nor destroyed.  The total amount of energy is constant and cannot change; it can only be transferred from one object to another or converted from one form to another.

 

 

Liquid:


  A state of matter in which atoms or molecules are packed close to each other (about as closely as in a solid) but are free to move around and by each other.



Matter:


 Anything that occupies space and has mass.  Matter exists in three different states:  solid, liquid and gas.



Mixture:


 A substance composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules combined in variable proportions.

 

 

Molecule:


 Two or more atoms joined in a specific arrangement by chemical bonds.  A molecule is the smallest identifiable unit of a molecular compound.

 

 

Physical change:

 

  A change in which matter does not change its composition, even though its appearance might change.



Physical property:

 

Those properties that a substance displays without changing its composition.



Potential energy:

 

 

 The energy of a body that is associated with its position or the arrangement of its parts.

 

 

Product:

 

  The final substances produced in a chemical reaction; represented on the right side of a chemical equation.

 

 

Property:

 

 

  The characteristics we use to distinguish one substance from another.

 

 

Pure substance:

 

 

A substance composed of only one type of atom or molecule.

 

 

Reactant:

 

 

 The initial substances in a chemical reaction, represented on the left side of a chemical equation.

 

 

Solid: 

 

 

A state of matter in which atoms or molecules are packed close to each other in fixed locations.

 

 

Specific heat capacity (specific heat):

 

 

 The heat capacity of a substance in joules per gram degree Celsius (J/g °C)

 


State of matter:

 

 

 The three forms in which matter can exist: solid, liquid, and gas.

 

 

Temperature:

 

 

 The measure of a substance’s thermal energy.

 

 

Thermal energy:

 

 

 Energy associated with the random motions of atoms and molecules in matter.

 

 

Volatile:

 

 

  Tending to vaporize easily.

 

 

Work:

 

 

 The result of a force acting on a distance.

x

Hi!
I'm Larry

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out