# Matter and Measurement

 Element
 Fundamental substance that can’t be changed chemically or broken down into anything simpler
 Hypothesis
 A proposition or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for an observed set of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation or accepted as highly probably in light of established facts
 Theory
 A coherent group of tested general propositions generally regarded as correct, that can be used as principles of explanation and prediction for a class of phenomena
 Scientific Law
 A phenomena of nature that has been proven to invariably occur whenever certain conditions exist or are met.
 Periodic Table
 A chart of the elements arranged by increasing atomic number so that elements in a given group have similar chemical properties
 Property
 Any characteristic that can be used to describe or identify matter
 Intensive Property
 Properties of matter whose values do NOT depend on the amount of a sample
 Extensive Properties
 Properties of matter whose values do depend on the amount of a sample
 Physical Properties
 Properties of matter that do NOT involve a change in the sample’s chemical makeup.
 Chemical Properties
 Properties of matter that do involve a change in the sample’s chemical makeup.
 Mass
 The amount of matter in an object. SI unit is the kilogram. Independent of an objects location.
 Weight
 A measure of the force with which gravity pulls on an object. Depends on the location of an object.
 Meter
 Standard SI unit of length.
 Kilogram
 Standard SI unit of mass.
 Kinetic Energy
 Energy of motion
 Accuracy
 How close a value is to the true value of a given measurement
 Precision
 How well a number of independent measurements agree with one another.
 Significant Figures
 The total number of units recorded for a measurement.
 Rule #1 for significant figures
 Zeros in the middle of a number are always significant.
 Rule #2 for significant figures
 Zeros at the beginning of a number are not significant.
 Rule #3 for significant figures
 Zeros at the end of a number and to the right of the decimal point are always significant.
 Rule #4 for significant figures
 Zeros at the end of a number and to the left of the decimal point may or may not be considered significant.
 Rule #1 for Significant Figures and Rounding in Calculations
 When multiplying or dividing values, the resulting number cannot have more significant figures than any of the original values.
 Rule #2 for Significant Figures and Rounding in Calculations
 When adding or subtracting values the answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than either of the original numbers.
 Rule #1 for Rounding
 If the first digit you remove is less than 5, round down by dropping that value and all following values.
 Rule #2 for Rounding
 If the first digit you remove is 5 or greater, round up by adding 1 to the value to the left of the value dropped.
 Dimensional Analysis
 A method of converting one unit into an equivalent quantity with another unit.
 Conversion Factor
 An expression that describes the relationship between two different units.
 Cubic meter
 SI unit of volume
 Celcius to Fahrenheit Conversion
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 Fahrenheit to Celcius Conversion
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 Conversion between degree Celcius and Kelvin
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 Density Equation
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 Chemistry
 The study of the composition, structure, properties, and changes of matter.
 Matter
 anything that occupies space or has mass; the physical material of the universe
 Atom
 the smallest representative particle of an element
 Molecule
 a substance composed of two or more atoms
 Compound
 a substance composed of two or more elements united chemically in definite proportions
 gas
 matter that has no fixed volume or shape; it conforms to the shape and volume of the container
 liquid
 matter that has a distinct volume, but no specific shape
 solid
 matter that has both a definite shape and a definite volume
 states of matter
 the three forms that matter can assume: solid, liquid, gas
 pure substance
 matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties
 mixture
 a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains is own chemical identity
 solution
 a mixture of substances that has a uniform composition; a homogeneous mixture
 Law of Constant Composition (Law of Definite Proportions)
 A law that states that the elemental composition of a pure substance is always the same, regardless of its source.
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