Matter and Measurement

Element
Fundamental substance that can’t be changed chemically or broken down into anything simpler
Hypothesis
A proposition or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for an observed set of phenomena, either asserted merely as a provisional conjecture to guide investigation or accepted as highly probably in light of established facts
Theory
A coherent group of tested general propositions generally regarded as correct, that can be used as principles of explanation and prediction for a class of phenomena
Scientific Law
A phenomena of nature that has been proven to invariably occur whenever certain conditions exist or are met.
Periodic Table
A chart of the elements arranged by increasing atomic number so that elements in a given group have similar chemical properties
Property
Any characteristic that can be used to describe or identify matter
Intensive Property
Properties of matter whose values do NOT depend on the amount of a sample
Extensive Properties
Properties of matter whose values do depend on the amount of a sample
Physical Properties
Properties of matter that do NOT involve a change in the sample’s chemical makeup.
Chemical Properties
Properties of matter that do involve a change in the sample’s chemical makeup.
Mass
The amount of matter in an object. SI unit is the kilogram. Independent of an objects location.
Weight
A measure of the force with which gravity pulls on an object. Depends on the location of an object.
Meter
Standard SI unit of length.
Kilogram
Standard SI unit of mass.
Kinetic Energy
Energy of motion
Accuracy
How close a value is to the true value of a given measurement
Precision
How well a number of independent measurements agree with one another.
Significant Figures
The total number of units recorded for a measurement.
Rule #1 for significant figures
Zeros in the middle of a number are always significant.
Rule #2 for significant figures
Zeros at the beginning of a number are not significant.
Rule #3 for significant figures
Zeros at the end of a number and to the right of the decimal point are always significant.
Rule #4 for significant figures
Zeros at the end of a number and to the left of the decimal point may or may not be considered significant.
Rule #1 for Significant Figures and Rounding in Calculations
When multiplying or dividing values, the resulting number cannot have more significant figures than any of the original values.
Rule #2 for Significant Figures and Rounding in Calculations
When adding or subtracting values the answer cannot have more digits to the right of the decimal point than either of the original numbers.
Rule #1 for Rounding
If the first digit you remove is less than 5, round down by dropping that value and all following values.
Rule #2 for Rounding
If the first digit you remove is 5 or greater, round up by adding 1 to the value to the left of the value dropped.
Dimensional Analysis
A method of converting one unit into an equivalent quantity with another unit.
Conversion Factor
An expression that describes the relationship between two different units.
Cubic meter
SI unit of volume
Celcius to Fahrenheit Conversion
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Fahrenheit to Celcius Conversion
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Conversion between degree Celcius and Kelvin
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Density Equation
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Chemistry
The study of the composition, structure, properties, and changes of matter.
Matter
anything that occupies space or has mass; the physical material of the universe
Atom
the smallest representative particle of an element
Molecule
a substance composed of two or more atoms
Compound
a substance composed of two or more elements united chemically in definite proportions
gas
matter that has no fixed volume or shape; it conforms to the shape and volume of the container
liquid
matter that has a distinct volume, but no specific shape
solid
matter that has both a definite shape and a definite volume
states of matter
the three forms that matter can assume: solid, liquid, gas
pure substance
matter that has a fixed composition and distinct properties
mixture
a combination of two or more substances in which each substance retains is own chemical identity
solution
a mixture of substances that has a uniform composition; a homogeneous mixture
Law of Constant Composition (Law of Definite Proportions)
A law that states that the elemental composition of a pure substance is always the same, regardless of its source.
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