Matter, Atoms, and Atomic Theory

Democritus
Democritus was the person who came up with the idea of atoms. He said that everything was made up of atoms. This theory was named “atomus”. He came up with this in 427 B.C.
Matter
Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. There are four states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Plasma is the most energetic type of matter.
John Dalton
Dalton was the “Father of Atomic Theory”, who tried experiments on Democritus’ theory. Dalton said that atoms are totally indivisible, but was wrong; atoms are made up of subatomic particles. He lived around 1800 A.D.
Substance
Substance is matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition.
Chemical Properties of Matter
Chemical properties of matter is the ability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substance, chemically. In other words, a CHEMICAL REACTION. Example: the ability iron has to form rust when it’s combined with air.
Physical Properties of Matter
The physical properties of matter can be observed or measured without changing the sample’s composition. There are two types of physical properties; extensive and intensive.
Extensive Properties
Extensive properties depend on how much “stuff” you have. The four main extensive properties are Mass, Weight, Volume, and Length.
Intensive Properties
Intensive properties are independent of how much “stuff” you have. They are things that won’t change no matter how much of it you have. Some examples would be color, odor, luster, malleability, hardness, and boiling point.
Heterogeneous Mixture
Any combination of substance that doesn’t have a uniform composition and properties(Doesn’t blend smoothly, remains distinct). Example; salsa, gumbo, etc.
Homogeneous Mixture
They have a constant composition throughout; always have a single phase. For example; gatorade, salt water, kool-aid, etc.
Solution
The process by which a gas, liquid, or solid is dispersed HOMOGENEOUSLY in a gas, liquid, or solid without a chemical change. Vanilla ice cream, jello, and steel would be solid solutions. Gatorade would be a liquid solution. The air we breathe would be a gaseous solution.
Filtration
Is a technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a(heterogeneous mixture)solid from a liquid. For example, coffee beans/filters.
Distillation
A separation technique that is based on the difference of the boiling point of the substances involved (separates homogeneous solutions).
Crystallization
A separation technique that results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolving substance.
Chromatography
A technique that separates the components of a mixture, on the basis of the tendency of each to travel, be drawn across the surface of another material.
Elements
A pure substance that can’t be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical processes.
Isotope
When the number of neutrons in an element changes.
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