Matter in the Universe

Law of Conservation of Mass Definition
The total mass must remain constant during a chemical change
Law of Conservation of Mass Everyday
Burning paper, and having it change to ash, carbon dioxide and water vapor
Law of Conservation of Mass in the Lab
a 2.53g sample of mercury heated in air produces 2.73g of red-orange residue

2.53g + Mass of Oxygen =2.73g

What distinguishes different physical forms of Matter?
compressibility and rigidity
Solid
matter characterized by rigidity; is relatively incompressible and has fixed shape and volume
Liquid
fixed volume, no fixed shape
Gas
easily compressible; no fixed volume or shape.
Physical Change
A change in the form of matter but not in its chemical identity
Chemical Change
A change in which one or more kinds of matter are transformed into new matter or several new kinds of matter
Physical Property
A characteristic which can be observed without changing a material’s chemical identity. EX: color, smell, freezing point, boiling point, melting point, infra-red spectrum, attraction or repulsion to magnets, opacity, viscosity and density
Chemical Property
A characteristic of a material involving a chemical change. EX:heat of combustion, reactivity with water, PH, and electromotive force
Pure Substance
A substance made up of one type of molecule
Impure Substance
A substance which is a mixture of two or more kinds of molecules and has no definite composition and properties
Substance
A kind of mater which cannot be separated into other kinds of mater by any physical process
Elements
Substances that cannot be decomposed by any chemical reaction into simpler substances. EX: oxygen, hydrogen, gold, silver, copper, common salt, pure water, alum
Compounds
A substance composed of two or more elements chemically combined. EX:Sodium Chloride, Ammonia, Calcium Carbonate
Mixtures
A material that can be separated by physical means into two or more substances. EX: air, soil, sugar in water, sand in water, fruit juice
Heterogeneous Mixture
A mixture that consists of physically distinct parts which different properties. EX:rocks, oil and water, soup, pizza, sand
Homogeneous Mixture
A mixture that is uniform in its properties throughout. EX:air, blood, saturated sugar water
Intensive Properties
Properties that do not depend on the amount of the matter present.
EX: Color, Odor, Conductivity,Boiling Point, Density
Extensive Properties
Properties that do depend on the amount of matter present.
EX: Mass, Weight, Volume, Length,
Chromatography
The collective term for a set of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures; The mixture is dissolved in a fluid called the mobile phase, which carries it through a structure holding another material called the stationary phase. The various constituents of the mixture travel at different speeds, causing them to separate
Liquid Chromatography
Used to test water samples to look for pollution in lakes and rivers, also to analyze metal ions and organic compounds in solutions. Liquid chromatography uses liquids
Gas Chromatography
Used in airports to detect bombs and in forensics to analyze fibers and blood found at a crime scene. Helium is used to move a gaseous mixture through a column of absorbent material.
Thin- Layer Chromatography
Uses an absorbent material on flat glass or plastic plates. IT is a simple and rapid method to check the purity of an organic compound, mostly to detect pesticide or insecticide residues in food. Thin-layer chromatography is also used in forensics to analyze the dye composition of fibers
Paper Chromatography
Uses a strip of paper as the stationary phase. Capillary action is used to pull the solvents up through the paper and separate the solutes. This is the most common form of Chromatography.
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