MCAT Chem 3/4

H bond
H bonded to F, O, or N
Work on chemical system eqn

w=PΔV

(constant pressure)

Conduction-temperature difference is proportional to
distance b/w 2 points
Rate of heat flow…
doesn’t change when traveling thru line of materials placed b/w hot + cold reservoirs
1st Law of Thermodynamics

;E= q+w

;

OR: q-w=;E

Examples of state functions (ie don’t change depending on path)
U, T, P, V, H, S, G
Examples of Path function (ie change according to path)
work, heat
K.E. avg=
K.E. avg= 3/2 kT
Enthalpy eqn

ΔH=ΔU+PΔV

 

(const. pressure, ΔU=internal E)

Converting °C to °K
Add 273
Heat (ΔH enthalpy) of rxn
ΔH°rxn=ΔH°f products– ΔH°f rxtnts
Label Fig. 1 on pg. 1 of notebook
Exothermic rxn has _ Δenthalpy
-ΔH
Endothermic rxn has _ ΔH
+ΔH
Entropy increases w/
#, V, T
ΔS of sys. + surroundings eqn
ΔSsystem + ΔSsurroundings = ΔSuniverse≥0
ΔG Gibbs free energy eqn

ΔG= ΔH-TΔS

(const. T & P rxns)

ΔG from (+/-) ΔH & ΔS chart

ΔH   ΔS   ΔG

(-)   (+) → (-)

(+)   (-) → (+)

 

Heat is being __ if ΔH is (+)
absorbed
At Equilibrium, ΔG=
0
Bond broken, E is __. Bond formed, E is __
absorbed; released
nitrite
NO2
Nitrate
NO3
sulfite
SO32-
Sulfate
SO42-
hypochlorite
Cl0
chlorite
Cl02
chlorate
Cl03
perchlorate
Cl04
carbonate
CO32-
bicarbonate
HCO3
phosphate
PO43-
molarity eqn
M= mols solt/ L soln
molality
m= mols solt/ kg solvent
mole fraction
x = mols solt/ mols solt + solvent
mass % =
mass %= mass solt/ mass soln X 100
ppm=
ppm = mass solt/ mass soln X106
D =
m/V=kg/L
specific gravity =
D substance/ D H2O
Raoult’s law (vapor press.) for nonvolatile solt

Pv = xa Pa

;

(xa= mole fraction of liqd a; Pa= vapor press. of liqd a)

vapor press. eqn for volatile solt addition
Pv = xa Pa + xb Pb
stronger bonds form in a soln when heat is…
given off (exothermic)
High ksp= __soluble
more
T increase, gas __ soluble
less (e.g. soda can); nt: opposite for salts
H2O boils at ___ ;C ; ___ torr
100;C ; 760 torr
Volatile solt addition. If exothermic, Pv deviates…
negatively from Raoult’s law.
Nonvolatile solt addition. Pv
decreases (b/c takes up space of surface molecules)
Element in standard state @ 25 °C. ΔH=?
0
Heat engine is more efficient if temp of reservoirs are…
more different
x

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