MCAT Chemistry

Factors that affect the rate of reaction
Catalysts, Medium, Temperature, Concentration of Reactants
Homogeneous catalysts
Catalysts are in the same phase as the reactant
Heterogeneous Catalysts
Catalysts are in a different phase from the reactants
Enthalpy
is the heat absorbed or evolved by a system at constant pressure
kinetic molecular theory
no volume, no attractions or repulsions, ave KE is proportional to abs temp, elastic collisions, continuous random motion
KE formula
1/2 mv^2 = 3/2kT
Diffusion
The flow of gas particles through a mixture e.g. the smell from an open bottle of perfume diffusing across the room. Isobaric and Isothermal. r1/r2 = (mr2/mr1)^1/2
Effusion
the flow of gas particles under pressure from one compartment to another through a small opening. isothermal. r1/r2 = (mr2/mr1)^1/2
Boyle’s Law
P1V1=P2V2
Charles’s Law
V1/T1 = V2/T2
Avogadro’s Principle
n1/V1 = n2/V2
Ideal Gas Equation and Encompassing Gas Eqtn
PV = nRT
P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
Density
m/V
STP
273.15K. 1 atm amd 22.4L/mol
Kinetics
Standard Conditions
State functions
293.15K and 1 atm
Enthalpy, Entropy, Gibb’s free energy
Ideal gas behaviour – exception
seen at low pressure and high temperature. Exception = high pressure and low temperature bc molecular volume and intermolecular attraction become important
Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure
Pa = XaPt where X = mole fraction & Pt = total pressure
Mole Fraction
Xa = na (moles of A) /nt (total moles)
Root mean square
is the speed which corresponds to the ave. KE per particle. Urms = (3RT/mr)^1/2
x

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