MCAT General Chemistry Review 5

Heat Capacity, C
Measure of the energy change needed to change the temperature of a substance.
Specific Heat Capacity

Heat capacity per unit mass.

q=CΔT

q=mcΔT

Specific Heat of water
cwater=1 cal g-1 oC-1
Coffee cup calorimeter

Constant pressure calorimeter that measure energy change at atmospheric pressure.

Measures heat of reaction

Heat of reaction
ΔH
Bomb Calorimeter

Measure the energy change at constant volume.

Tell us the internal energy change in a reaction.

ΔU

Heat of Fusion
Enthalpy change associated with melting.
Heat of Vaporization
Enthaply change associated with boiling.
Triple Point
Point on the phase diagram where the substance can exist in equilibrium as a solid, liquid and gas.
Crtitical Temperature
Temperature above which a substance cannot be liquified regardless of pressure applied.
Critical Pressure
The pressure required to produce liquefaction while the substance is at critical temperature.
Critical Point

Critical Temp and Pressure.

Substance beyong this point have characteristics of both gas and liquid called a supercritical fluid.

Colligative Properties

Properties that depend soley on the number of particles and not the type.

Vapor Pressure, Boiling Point, Freezing Point, and Osmotic Pressure.

Boiling Point Elevation
ΔT=kbmi
Addition of nonvolatile solute
BP increases, MP decreases
Freezing Point Depression
ΔT = kfmi
Osmotic Pressure

Measure of the tendancy of water to move into a solution via osmosis.

∏=iMRT

 

Only relevant when comparing one solution to another.

Osmotic Potential
A partial measure of a system’s free energy.
How does salt affect freezing point off water?
Salts lowers the freezing points of water.
Which salt lowers freezing point most?

The salt that releases the most particles per gram.

(Divide total particles by MW)

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