Med Chem test I

valence for

H

S

Ne 

Valence is

1

6

Valence for

Ar

Si

Valence is

8

4

Valence for

P

Cl

Valence is

5

7

Valence for

N

F

Valence is

5

7

shell vs. # orbitals vs. # electrons

s

p

d

s, 1, 2

p, 3, 6

d, 5, 10

f, 7, 14 

the hybridization for Carbons of Acetylene is___

 

the bonds consist of

1___

2___

3___

 

the hybridization is

 sp

 

1 pair e- in σ orbital

1 pair e- in π_z

1 pair e- in π_y

The geometry for H2O is____

and the angle is ___ 

tetrahedral structure

104.5 degrees 

two lone pairs and two H-bonds 

Ammonia and Trimethyl Amine

have ___ structure

and consist of ___ 

pyramidal

5 valenc-shell electrons

shares 3 bonds w/ H or CH3 (respectively)

one lone pair 

Explain the structure of Ammonium

Four H bonds

one electron short: has positive charge N+

 electron density surrounds N

tetrahedral 

Ammonium vs. Hydronium

which is more dominate when in aq solns 

Ammonium,

since Hydronium is more electronegative

and 

Nitrogen atom tolerates additional

proton more readily. 

Sulfoxide structure

Sulfone structure 

   One oxygen double bond, two methyl, one lone pair. tetrahedral

 

 

 

      Two oxygen double bonds, two methyl. tetrahedral

Define target validation

definition:

effect on disease state,

which is proven in clinic that

molecular target could be used

for something useful.

Target is at the molecular-level. 

The Hybridization of ethylene is ___

sp2

one sigma pair e-

one pi pair e-

two planes of bonds 

disease cause of defective chloride membrane transporter
cystic fibrosis

What are methods of

target modulation?

methods:

agonism

antagonism

potentiation (make enzyme more potent)

inhibition 

broad meaning of receptor

 

molecular level target,

 

any molecule that has specific binding site for ligand (latin word for "link"),

 

 includes agonists, antagonists, substrates, inhibitors, any smaller molecule that binds to specific site on micromolecule

Narrow meaning of receptor (more commonly encountered use)

enzymes and binding sites,

 

micromolecule embedded in membrane or cytoplasm that has binding site htat has specific ligand but will be filled with drug 

Definition

ligand that can activate a signal transuction process

Agonist

Definition:

can not "flip the switch" as long as it is bound.  

nothing can be activated 

Antagonist

Definition:

behaves like agonist: binds and can activate transduction, but not with full efficacy

 

can also behave like antagonist: as long as it is bound an agonist can not come in and activate it with full efficacy; very few drugs like the this but have potential here 

Partial Agonist

Definition:

 

Includes any ligand that regulates the activity of any molecule.

 

common sitiuation: two proteins binding to create acitve or inactive situation

 

Includes: agonists, antagonists, and enzyme inhibitor

 

competitive, noncompetitive, uncompetitive 

Modulator

Definition:

 

ligand binds to binding state other than catalytic site or agonist binding site;  

 

have multiple protein subunits 

Allosteric Modulator

"allo" means "other"

Steric denotes space and volume 

Define Competitive Inhibition
The inhibitor does not necessarily have to bind to the same active site that the substrate would bind to. As long as the binding of the inhibitor prevents the binding of the substrate (before it has done so), the inhibition mechanism is competitive
Definine non-competitive inhibition

 

 

Inhibition by binding to allosteric site (site other than substrate binding site); reduces the maximum rate of chemical rxn w/o changing binding affinity of catalyst for substrate

Define uncompetitve inhibition

takes place when an enzyme inhibitor binds only to the complex formed between the enzyme and the substrate

 

reduces the effective concentration of the E-S

 

decreases the maximum enzyme activity (Vmax), as it takes longer for the substrate or product to leave the active site

Receptors on the cell surface of the

cell that the neuron is acting on

respond specifically

to that _______

 

Neurotransmitter

Neurotransmitters on responding cell

generate ____ or a ____ 

EPSP (cell will become more postive) or IPSP

 

terminate response by uptake of NT by enzymatic degradation 

True or False

 

In regards to selectivity, "potency" is most important.

False

 

selectivity of action

is most important 

Isozyme
enzymes with different amino acid sequence but catalyze same chemical rxn
x

Hi!
I'm Larry

Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out