Megan’s Test #3 Study Flash Cards

What is the definition of solubility?

Solubility is

• the maximum amount of solute that dissolves in a specific amount of solvent

• temperature sensitive for solutes

• expressed as grams of solute in 100 grams of solvent, usually water

What is the defintion of saturated?

Saturated solutions

• contain the maximum amount of solute that can dissolve • have undissolved solute at the bottom of the container

• contain solute that dissolves as well as solute that recrystallizes in an equilibrium process 

What is the definition of unsaturated?

Unsaturated solutions

• contain less than the maximum amount of solute

• can dissolve more solute

What is the definition of isotonic?

An isotonic solution

• exerts the same osmotic pressure as body fluids such as red blood cells (RBCs)

• of 5.0% (m/v) glucose or 0.90% (m/v) NaCl is a typical isotonic solution

What is the definition of hypotonic?

A hypotonic solution

• has a lower solute concentration than RBCs

• means water flows into cells by osmosis 

What is the definition of hypertonic?

A hypertonic solution

• has a higher solute concentration than RBCs

• causes crenation: RBCs shrink in size In a hypertonic solution, water goes out of the cells by osmosis.

Know that increased temperature increases solubility of salts but decreases solubility of gases
What is the definition of mass percent?

Mass percent (% m/m) is the

• concentration by mass of solute in a solution

• grams of solute in 100 g of solution (conversion factor for mass percent)

 

mass percent m/m=g solute/g of solute+ g solvent x100

 

mass percent=g of solute/100 g of solution

What is the definition of molarity?

Molarity (moles of solute/liter of solution) is defined as the moles of solute per volume (L) of solution.

 

M=moles of solute/liters of solution

 

What is the definition and property of the word solutions?

Solutions

• are transparent

• do not separate

• contain small particles, ions, or molecules that cannot be filtered and pass through semipermeable membranes

What is the definition and property of the word colloids?

Colloids

• have medium-size particles

• cannot be filtered

• can be separated by semipermeable membranes

What is the definition and property of the word suspenions?

Suspensions

• are heterogeneous, nonuniform mixtures

• have very large particles that settle out of solution • can be filtered

• must be stirred to stay suspended

 

Examples include blood platelets, muddy water, and calamine lotion.

Know how solute concentration effects freezing and boiling points

• Solutes dissolved in water effect the freezing point and boiling points. These are called colligative properties.

• Depends only on the number of solute particles in the solution

• Solutes disrupt the formation of water crystals and reduce the vapor pressure of water – causing a higher boiling point

• Examples are salt on icy roads to lower the freezing point of the ice and antifreeze in cars to lower the freezing point of the water in your radiator. Antifreeze also raises the boiling point of the mixture so it doesn’t boil over in hot weather.

What is the definition of the word half-life?
The half-life of a radioisotope is the time for the radiation level to decrease (decay) to one-half of the original value.
What is the definition of the word radioactivity?
the property possessed by some elements (as uranium) or isotopes (as carbon 14) of spontaneously emitting energetic particles (as electrons or alpha particles) by the disintegration of their atomic nuclei
What is the definition of the word radioisotope?

An isotope of an element that emits radiation is called a radioisotope.

When radiation is emitted, a radioisotope

• may undergo a change in the number of protons

• may be converted to an atom of another element

What is the definition of the word fission?

In nuclear fission, a large nucleus

• is bombarded with a small particle

• splits into smaller nuclei and several neutrons, releasing large amounts of energy called atomic energy

When a neutron bombards 235U,

• an unstable nucleus of 236U undergoes fission (splits)

• smaller nuclei such as Kr-91 and Ba-142 are produced

• the neutrons emitted have high energy and bombard more U-235 nuclei

What is the definition of the word fusion?

Fusion reactions

• occur at extremely high temperatures (100 000 000 ?C) • combine small nuclei into larger nuclei

• release large amounts of energy

• occur continuously in the sun and stars, producing large amounts of energy

What is the defintion of the word chain reaction?
In a nuclear chain reaction, the fission of each U-235 atom produces three neutrons that cause the nuclear fission of more and more U-235 atoms.
Know 3 types of radiation (alpha, beta, gamma) and what their Greek symbols are. Know their relative energies

An alpha (?) particle has two protons and two neutrons, and it is identical to He nucleus (2+ charge is omitted).

 

A beta (?) particle is a high-energy electron, with a charge of ?1, formed when a neutron is changed to a proton.

 

Gamma rays (?) are the high-energy radiation released from a nucleus when it decays. They have no mass or charge.  

Know the 3 methods of protection from radiation (time, distance, shielding) and know what types of protection is adequate for alpha, beta, and gamma emissions.

Radiation protection requires

• paper and clothing for alpha particles • a lab coat or gloves for beta particles

• a lead shield or a thick concrete wall for gamma rays

• limiting the amount of time spent near a radioactive source

• increasing distance from the source

Know what the units of radioactive activity (Curie), radiation absorbed (rad) and biological damage of radiation (rem) mean.

• curie (Ci), the number of disintegrations that occurs in 1 s for 1 g of radium, equal to 3.7 ? 1010 disintegrations/s

• rad (radiation absorbed dose), which measures the amount of radiation absorbed by a gram of material such as body The rem (radiation equivalent in humans) measures biological effects of different types of radiation, including

• alpha particles, which do not penetrate the skin; however, if they enter the body, extensive damage may occur in tissues

• high-energy radiation, such as beta particles, high-energy protons, and neutrons, which travels into tissues and causes more damage than alpha particles

• gamma rays, which are damaging because they travel a long way through body tissue

Know that a Geiger counter is used to detect radiation
Know what an LD50 is

LD50

• is the amount of radiation to the whole body that is the lethal dose for one-half the population

• varies for different life forms, as Table 5.6 shows Whole-body radiation of 600 rem or greater would be fatal to all humans within a few weeks.

Know the characteristics of and differences between nuclear fission and fusion
(see the definitions)
What is the definition of the word alkane?

Alkanes

• are hydrocarbons that contain only C—C and C—H bonds • are formed by a continuous chain of carbon atoms • are named using the IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) system

• have names that end in ane • use Greek prefixes to name carbon chains with five or more carbon atoms

What is the definition of the word substituent?
Substituents are atoms or groups of atoms attached to the carbon chain and include alkyl and halo groups.
What is the definition of the word isomer?
each of two or more compounds with the same formula but a different arrangement of atoms in the molecule and different properties.
What is the definition of the word alkyl group?

Alkyl groups are

• groups of carbon atoms attached to carbon chains

• named in the IUPAC system with an yl ending

What is the definition of the word alkene?

Alkenes and alkynes are families of hydrocarbons that

• contain double and triple bonds, respectively

• are called unsaturated hydrocarbons because they do not contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms

• react with hydrogen gas to increase the number of hydrogen atoms and become alkanes

 

Alkenes contain one or more carbon– carbon double bonds. In ethene, C2H4 , two carbon atoms are connected by a double bond. Each carbon atom in the double bond is attached to two hydrogen atoms and has a trigonal planar arrangement with bond angles of 120°.

What is the definition of the word alkyne?

Alkenes and alkynes are families of hydrocarbons that

• contain double and triple bonds, respectively

• are called unsaturated hydrocarbons because they do not contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms

• react with hydrogen gas to increase the number of hydrogen atoms and become alkanes

 

Alkynes contain one or more carbon–carbon triple bonds. In ethyne, C2H2 ,

• two carbon atoms are connected by a triple bond

• each carbon is also bonded to one H atom Each carbon atom in the triple bond has a linear arrangement with bond angles of 180°

What is the definition of the word aromatic compounds?
an organic compound that contains one or more benzene or equivalentheterocyclic rings: many such compounds have an agreeable odor.
What is the definition of the word benzene?

Benzene is

• an aromatic compound

• a ring of six C atoms, each bonded to one H atom

• a flat ring structure drawn with three alternating double bonds

• represented by two structures because the electrons are shared equally among all the C atoms

• represented by a skeletal formula using a circle in the center instead of the alternating double bonds

Know that for C-C single bonds, that bond can rotate freely.
Know the properties of alkanes (solubility, flammability, etc.)
Know that a carbohydrate consists of C, H, and O, are a major source of energy, are also called saccharides, which mean ‘sugars’
Know that only D- sugars are found naturally in the body
Know that D-glucose is an a 6-carbon aldose that is also known as dextrose or blood sugar
Know that fructose has the same molecular formula as glucose, but is a ketose.
Know that the cyclic structure of a sugar is formed from the open chain structure because the hydroxyl group of the 5th carbon atom attaches to the C of the carbonyl group to form a ring.
Know that the cyclic structure is more common than the open chain structure, but that they open and close repeatedly and can change from alpha to beta forms and back.
Know that sugars can undergo reduction to form sugar alcohols, also called alditols
Know that saccharides are joined together by glycosidic bonds between 2 alcohols from 2 different sugars
Know that maltose, lactose, and sucrose are disaccharides, and amylose, amylopectin, glycogen, and cellulose are polysaccharides.

methane CH4
ethane C2H6
propane C3H8
butane C4H10
pentane C5H12
hexane C6H14
heptane C7H16
octane C8H18
nonane C9H20
decane C10H22

[image]

heptane C7H16
octane C8H18
nonane C9H20
decane C10H22

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