THIAMINE (TPP) -enzyme that helps decarboxylate pyruvate and alpha-ketoglutarate in TCA cycle -Thiamine allows food to go into the TCA cycle and make ATP -When a person is deficient in thiamine, they rely only on glycoslysis
RIBOFLAVIN (FAD) -B2 -active in electron transmission and is a current carrier in energy production
NIACIN (nicotinic acid) -B3 -Component of NAD+ -Active in electron transmission and is a current carrier in energy production -structure simliar to nicotine, but very different functions
LIPOIC ACID -once passed off by CoA in reactions, it is an acyl carrier in dehydrogenase reactions
PANTOTHENIC ACID -B5 -component of coenzyme A -essential for entry of acyl groups into the TCA cycle
What is the function of the 5 following Water-soluble Vitamins?
Pyridoxine (pyridoxal and pyridoxamine)-B6 Biotin Folic Acid Cobalamine-B12 Ascorbic Acid – Vitamin C
PYRIDOXINE – B6 -pyridoxal essential for amino acid metabolism -useful in pyridoxal form and asociated with its enzyme by using Schiff base
BIOTIN -prosthetic group held by peptide bond for caroxylation reactions, which add carboxyl groups
FOLIC ACID -one carbon donor in biosynthesis reactions; passes around methyl group of methionine -recommended for pregnant women to decrease risk of spina bifida in newborns
COBALAMINE – B12 -composed of a ring structure, like hemoglobin, but uses cobalt metal instead of iron. -essential for metabolism of branched chain amino acids
ASCORBIC ACID – Vitamin C -essential for hydroxylation of prolyl and lysyl residues in collagen chains. -good general reducing agent; provides H+ to drive oxidative phosphorylation -could possibly eat only vitamin C and still stay alive (not recommended)
What are 4 noted Fat-soluble vitamins and what are their functions?
VITAMIN A -split from beta-carotene *Retinal-associated with visual proteins (rhodopsin) *Retinol-maintenance of healty epithelial tisues (Retin-A)
VITAMIN D -cholecalciferol (D3), also a D which we did not learn about -calcium absorption in GI tract and secretion of phosphate in kidneys. -deficiency can cause rickets (osteomalacia), which is a bowing of bones, especially the lower extremeities -made by sunlight hitting skin -darker skin will decrease the uptake of UV rays that help make Vitamin D. -Can have Vitamin D deficiency if person is never outside or if a child is being nursed by a mother who is never outside or is dark-skinned.
VITAMIN E – alpha-tocopherol -proposed reducing agent -not sure of function in humans -also possible anti-plague agent in blood vessels. not supported by study
VITAMIN K -used for carboxylation of specific glutamyl residues in proteins (glutamic acid), which activates the clotting cascade