In assessing vitamin D levels the best entity to measure is:
25, hydroxyvitamin D
How does whole blood glucose concentration, measured in patient testing meters, compare to plasma glucose measured in the clinical laboratory
Whole blood glucose is typically lower than plasma glucose
In the diabetic patient all of the following are true except:
The cellular response to insulin in increased
A 47 year old woman with a history of diabetes mellitus in her family is most likely to develop which of the following types of diabetes?
Type 2
Apolipoprotein B-100 is a constituent of
VLDL, intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL) and LDL
Which set of factors is often a mechanism for hyponatremia?
Fluid loss, ADH, and drinking water
A genetic variant of the LDL receptor with decreased binding capacity would be expected to cause an elevation in plasma
Total cholesterol
In regards to diabetics, the presence of microalbuminuria is indicative of
Developing nephropathy
Which of the following proteins is decreased in a hemolytic disorder
An appropriate anticoagulant for collection of a plasma sample for measurement of total calcium is
A deficiency in which of the following hormones increases bone turn over
In the homeostasis of calcium and phosphate
The actions of parathyroid hormone (PTH) tend to increase serum calcium and decrease serum phosphate
Turbidity in the serum or the appearance of a milky layer on the surface after refrigeration suggests an elevation of:
Which of the following conditions might casue n increase in glycated hemoglobin
iron deficiency anemia
A 39 year old male presents in the out patient department and provides a urine specimen during a routine physical examination. During the analysis, after opening the container you notice the urine darkening on standing. This suggests:
The enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of the triglycerides in chylomicrons and VLDL is
Lipoprotein Lipase
Plasma proteins that decrease in the acute phase response include
Albumin, transthyretin, and transferrin
A decreased serum albumin is likely to cause a(n)
Decrease in serum total calcium
Which hormone responds first to decrease in blood volume
Lipids are transported by means of a series of rather complex micellar structures that consist of an outer monolayer or protein (an apolipoprotein) and polar lipids (phospholipids and unesterified cholesterol), and an inner core of neutral lipids (triglycerides and cholesteryl esters).
Which of the following is the least likely cause og hyperkalemia
Homocysteinemia, as related to cardiovascular disease, is associated with
A deficiency of folate and vitamin B-12
Total body water is subdivided into two compartments:
The extracellular fluid serving as a media for metabolic exchange and the intracellular fluid servings as a medium for metabolic reactions
Which of the following is secreted by the placenta and used for the early detection of pregnancy?
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
When Trioses derived from the polyhydroxy alcohol glycerol undergo oxidation on the end terminal carbon there is the formation of
An aldose known as glyderaldehyde
In reviewing the results of an electrolyte profile you encounter the following results: Cl=110, tCO2=34, Na= 130, K=4.4. These results require:
the results be repeated
Placental functions include
serve as an effective barrier to the movement of large proteins and hydrophobic compounds, B. separation of maternal and fetal circulation and Manufacture several important hormones including HCG, Human placental Lactogen, and estorgens
Transferrin is a protein typically associated with the transport of
ferric ions
Humans can synthesize all essential fatty acids EXCEPT:
linoleic acid
Hypomagnesemia is often accompanied by a(n)
decreased serum calcium
Which are the preferred conditions for collection and transport of blood for potassium measurements?
Heparin anticoagulant, transport blood at room temperature
Triacylglycerols are insoluble in water because
The fatty acid chains will not form hydrogen bonds, They tend to associate with other hydrophobic entities, and Triacylglycerols do not tend to form micelles
Any condition that results in the restriction of carbohydrate metabolism with a subsequent increased fat metabolism will produce increased formation of
Which two factors are important in regulation of both blood osmolality and blood volume
Thirst and ADH
Hematological changes that may be expected during pregnancy include all of the following EXCEPT
Deceases in fibrinogen levels
Which are true with regards to the diagnostic use of alpha-fetoprotien:
maternal AFP levels are increased in neural tube defect and decreased in Down’s syndrome
The anion gap is increased in patients with:
Lactic acidosis
A potassium level of 6.8 mEq/L is obtained. Prior to reporting the result the technologist should:
Check the specimens for hemolysis
The solute that contributes the most to the total serum osmolality is:
With which of these functions is potassium strongly associated?
Myocardial contraction and rhythm
Increased concentrations of macromolecules in the plasma will result in:
lower measured ion concentration even though plasma water ion concentrations and activity may be normal
The effective osmotic pressure of plasma and the interstitial fluid across the capillary membrane is referred to as
Colloid Osmotic Pressure.
List the routes of water intake
ingestion, water in food stuffs, and oxidative metabolism
List the routes of water loss
urine, insensible perspiration, and GI water loss (stool)
Most often in water coupled with sodium loss dehydration involves a net negative balance in both water and sodium. In hypernatremic (hyperosmolar) dehydration:
water balance is more negative than sodium balance
List the factors regulating distal tubular secretion of K+ include:
Intake of Na+ and K+, water flow rate in distal tubules, plasma levels of mineralocorticoids, and acid-base status
Total body K+ is influenced by:
age, gender, and muscle mass

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