Mid-Term Chapters 1,2,3,19 Review

Lab Safety and Supplies

 

What is the rule that applies to the use of eye protection?

 

Always wear goggles or eye protection when conducting an experiment.

Lab Safety and Supplies


Provide 3 steps to follow if glasswear breaks.

 

1) Tell the teacher (She will tell you if it’s safe or not)

2) Sweep up the glass with the dust pan and brush

3) Put it in the glasswear container (NOT the trashcan)

Lab Safety and Supplies


You are conducting an experiment that requires you to note the odor of a gas produced…

a) what is the term used for this technique?

b) describe how you would perform this technique

 

a) wafting

b) 1) hold the substance away from you

2) use your hand and push air from over the beaker to your nose (DO NOT smell directly)

Lab Safety and Supplies


What are the most important considerations when using the Bunsen burner to heat materials?

 

1) Do not reach over the flame

2) Set up all materials before turning it on

3) Wear protective eye glasses and apron

4) DO NOT leave unattended

Lab Safety and Supplies 


Describe the best way to heat materials in a test tube.


 

Tilt the test tube towards a wall (not yourself or others) and slowly move it back and forth over the flame.

Lab Safety and Supplies


List the 5 safety items found around the room.

 

1) Eye Wash Station/ Emergency Shower

2) Fire Blanket

3) Fire Extinguisher

4) Chemical Hood

5) First Aid Kit

Lab Safety and Supplies


What does the PASS acronym stand for?

 

Pull: the pin

Aim: the hose

Squeeze: the handle

Sweep: from side to side

Lab Safety and Supplies


When making dilution of an acid with water, always add water to acid.  True or False?

 

False.  

Always add acid to water

Lab Safety and Supplies


What are 3 things that must be done if you get a chemical in your eye and have to use the eye wash station?

 

1) Wash from the nose out to the ear

2) Flood eyes and eyelids with water for 15-20 minutes

3) Keep the eyes forcibly open

Lab Safety and Supplies


If your clothing catches fire what is the best course of action to take?

 

STOP, DROP, AND ROLL!!

Apparatus


Beaker

 

used as a container and can be heated

Apparatus 


Bunsen Burner

 

used to heat materials

Apparatus 


Crucible and Lid

 

used for heating solids over a Bunsen burner

Apparatus


Test Tube Rack

 

used to hold test tubes

Apparatus


Evaporating Dish

 

used for evaporating materials

Apparatus 


Erlenmeyer Flask

 

used as a container of liquids, not a lot of information.

Do not measure with this! 

Apparatus


Foreceps

 

 

used to pick up or hold small objects

Apparatus


Funnel

 

used to filter liquids and measure

Apparatus


Mortar and Pestle

 

used to grind solids up

Apparatus


Clay Triangle

 

used to hold crucible and lid over Bunsen burner

Apparatus


Graduated Cylinder

 

used to measure liquids and has more information

Apparatus


Ring and Ring Stand

 

used to hold beakers and other things over the Bunsen burner, 

holds the Bunsen burner and ring

Apparatus


Test Tube

 

used as a container and can be heated

Apparatus


Test tube Tongs

 

used to pick up test tubes

Apparatus


Beaker Tongs

 

used to pick up hot beakers and other apparatuses

Apparatus


Watch Glass

 

 

used as a lid for the evaporating dish

Apparatus


Test Tube Cleaner

 

used to clean test tubes and other apparatuses

Apparatus


Wire Mesh

 

 

used for spreading out the heat of the flame from the Bunsen burner onto other apparatuses

Lab Safety and Supplies


Where is the hottest part of the flame in the Bunsen burner?

 

 

The tip of the inner core

Lab Safety and Supplies 


What part of the Bunsen burner do you use to adjust the amount of gas in the flame?

 

Main gas valve

Lab Safety and Supplies


What part of the Bunsen burner do you use to adjust the amount of air in the flame?

 

 

The air vent, it is adjusted by screwing the burner tube up and down

Chapter 1


Chemistry

 

the study of compostition, matter, structure, and of changes that occur in matter (chemical reactions)

Chapter 1


Matter

 

anything that has mass and occupies space

Chapter 1

Atoms

 

the smallest distinctive units in a sample of matter

Chapter 1

Molecules

 

larger units in which 2 or more atoms are joined

Chapter 1


Composition

 

types of atoms and the relative proportions of the different atoms in a sample of matter

Chapter 1


Physical Property

 

a characeristic displayed by a sample of matter without undergoing any change in its composition

Chapter 1



Examples of Physical Change

 

no change in the substance involved, how it occurs

ex: color, odor, taste, boiling/melting point, physical state, density, solubility, electrical conductivity 

Chapter 1


Chemical Property

 

characteristic displayed by a sample of matter as it undergoes a change in its composition

Chapter 1


Examples of Chemical Change

 

substances are changed, NEW transformation

ex: burn, rot, rust, decompose, ferment, explode, corrode, reactivity, flammability

Chapter 1


Physical Change

 

a sample of matter usually undergoes noticeable change at the macroscopic level but no change in its composition

Chapter 1


Chemical Change

 

(aka CHEMICAL REACTION) a sample of matter undergoes a change in composition and/ or change in the structure of its molecules

Chapter 1


Substance

 

 

a type of matter that has a definite (fixed) composition that does not vary from one sample of a substance to another

Chapter 1


Element

 

 

a substance that cannot be broken down into other simpler substances by chemical reactions

Chapter 1


Compound

 

a substance made up of atoms of 2 or more elements, with teh different kinds of atoms combined in fixed proportions

Chapter 1


Chemical Symbol

 

a 1 or 2 letter designation to use symbols that derived from the name of the element

Chapter 1


Mixture

 

has no fixed composition, it’s composition may vary over a broad range

Chapter 1


Homogeneous Mixture

 

(aka SOLUTION) a mixture that has the same composition and properties throughout

Chapter 1


Heterogenous Mixture

 

varies in composition and/or properties from 1 part of the mixture to another

Chapter 1


Hypothesis

 

a tenative explanation or prediction concerning some phenomenom, must be a guess that can be tested

Chapter 1


Experiment

 

when scientists test a hypothesis through carefully controlled procedures

Chapter 1


Data

 

the facts obtained through careful observation and measurements made during an experiment

Chapter 1


Scientific Laws

 

 

patterns that have been identified in large collections of data and summerized

 

Chapter 1


Theory

 

provides explanations of observed natural phenomena and predictions that can be tested by further experiments

Chapter 1


Mass

 

the amount of matter that a substance contains

Chapter 1


Macroscopic Level

 

what humans can see, large –> macro

Chapter 1


Microscopic Level

 

actual particles (atoms, etc) small –> micro

Chapter 1


What are a solid’s volume and shape?

 

definite

definite

Chapter 1

What are a liquid’s volume and shape?


 

definite

indefinite

Chapter 1


What are a gas’s volume and shape?

 

indefinite

indefinite

Chapter 1

The properties of a compound are _______ from the properties of the elements that make it up.

 

DIFFERENT

Chapter 1


What is Filtration?

 

separates a solid from a liquid

ex: sand and water lab

Chapter 1


What is Evaporation?

 

separates dissolved solids from liquids

ex: salt and water lab

Chapter 1


What is Distillation?

 

separation of two liquids

Chapter 1


What is Chromatography?

separates mixtures as the solvent travels across the paper by capillary action, the components of the mixture separate, the components of the mixture that are most soluble in the solvent and least attracted to the paper travel the farthest

a) a stationary phase (filter paper)

b) a liquid (mobile) phase (solvent: water) 

Chapter 1


What kind of property is “blue color”?

 

Physical Property

Chapter 1


What kind of property is “solubility”?

 

Physical Property

Chapter 1


What kind of property is “reacts with acid to form H“?

 

Chemical Property

Chapter 1


What kind of property is “sour taste” ?

 

Physical Property

Chapter 1


What kind of property is “hardness” ?

 

 

Physical Property 

Chapter 1


What kind of property is “can neutralize a base”?

 

Chemical Property

Chapter 1


What kind of property is “luster”?

 

 

Physical Property

Chapter 1


What kind of property is “reacts with water to form a gas”?

 

Chemical Property

Chapter 1


What kind of property is “odor”?

 

Physical Property

Chapter 1


What type of matter is “Chlorine”?

 

Homogeneous element

Chapter 1


What type of matter is “Water”?

 

Homogeneous compound

Chapter 1


What type of matter is “soil”?

 

Heterogeneous, compound

Chapter 1


What type of matter is “sugar water”?

 

 

 

Homogeneous, compound

Chapter 1


What type of matter is “carbon dioxide”?

 

Homogeneous, element

Chapter 1


What type of matter is “rocky road ice cream”?

 

Heterogeneous, compound

Chapter 1


Observation

 

is a statement of fact, based on what you detect by your senses

Chapter 1


Interpretation

 

is your judgement or opinion about what you have observed

Chapter 1


Quantitative Observation

 

is an observation that involves a measurement

Chapter 1


Qualitative Observation

 

is a general description and does not involve a measurement

Chapter 1


Conclusion

 

a judgement based on the results of an experiment

Chapter 1


Coefficient 

 

number between 1-10

Chapter 1


Exponent

 

a positive or negative integer in scientific notation which shows the power of the coefficient

Chapter 1


How do you determine the exponent in Scientific Notation?

 

1) if decimal is moved to the right the exponent is negative

2) if decimal is moved to the left the exponent is positive

Chapter 1


In multiplication, how do you calculate exponents?

 

Addition

ex: (6.7 x 103) x (5.2 x 104) = 34.84 x 107

correct sci. notation = 3.484 x 108

Chapter 1


In division, how do you calculate exponents?

 

 

Subtract

ex: (2.3 x 102) x (6.6 x 105) = 15.18 x 10-3

correct sci. notation = 1.518 x 10-2

Chapter 1


For addition or subtraction, how do you calculate exponents?

 

the exponents must be the same for all numbers involved

(2.3 x 103) + (3.5 x 103)

.23 x 10+ 3.5 x 103 = 3.73 x 103

Chaper 1


What is the unit of measurement for length?

 

 

meter (m)

Chapter 1


What unit of measurement for mass?

 

 

kilogram (kg)

Chapter 1


What is the unit of measurement for time?

 

second (s)

Chapter 1


What is the unit of measurement for temperature?

 

Kelvin (K) 

Chapter 1


What unit of measurement is used for the amount of a substance? 

 

mole (mol) 

Chapter 1


What is the unit of measurement for electric current?

 

Ampere (A)

Chapter 1


Derived units

 

combining fundamental units

Chapter 1

Formula for Volume

 

l x w x h= units3= (mL)

Chapter 1


Formula for Density

 

mass / volume = grams / cm3 = g / mL

 

Chapter 1


Formula for Energy

 

kg x m2 / s2 = Joule

Chapter 1


Put 2,370 in Scientific Notation

 

2.37 x 103

Chapter 1


Put 0.000 045 in Scientific Notation

 

4.5 x 10-5

Chapter 1


103 x 106

 

109

Chapter 1


10-2 x 105

 

103

Chapter 1


102 / 108

 

10-6

Chapter 1


(5.4 x 102) x (2.5 x 109)

 

1.35 x 1012

Chapter 1


(3.2 x 105) x (4.5 x 105

 

7.7 x 105

Chapter 1


(4.33 x 102) + (3.72 x 103)

 

 

4.183 x 103

Chapter 1


What system is used for measurement in Chemistry?

 

Metric System (SI)

Chapter 1


What are the base units of the metric system?

 

grams

liters

meters

Chapter 1


What is the base 10 multiplier scale?

 

103 102 101 base 10-1 10-2 10-3

Chapter 1


What does the base 10 multiplier prefix of 103 mean?

 

kilo: one thousand times

Chapter 1


What does the base 10 multiplier prefix for 102 mean?

 

hecto

Chapter 1


What does the base 10 multiplier prefix of 101 mean?

 

deca

Chapter 1


What does the base 10 multiplier prefix of 10-1 mean?

 

deci

Chapter 1


What does the base 10 multiplier prefix of 10-2 mean?

 

 

centi: one one hundredth 

Chapter 1


What does the base 10 multiplier prefix for 10-3 mean?

 

milli: one one thousandth

Chapter 1


Temperature

 

an indication of heat energy

 

Chapter 1


Heat

 

 

the transfer of energy from an object at higher temperature to an object at a lower temperature

Chapter 1


What are the 3 temperature scales?

 

Fahrenheit

Celsius

Kelvin

Chapter 1


What is the freezing point and boiling point for Celsius?

 

f.p. 0

b.p. 100

Chapter 1


What is the freezing point and boiling point for Fahrenheit?

 

f.p. 32

b.p. 212

Chapter 1


What is the freezing point and boiling point for Kelvin?

 

f.p. 273

b.p. 373

Chapter 1


Formula for converting Celsius to Kelvin

 

tK = tC + 273

tC = tK – 273

Chapter 1


Precision

 

degree of agreement among several measurements of the same quantity (reproductibility)

**depends on more than 1 measurement (3x)

Chapter 1


Accuracy

 

agreement of a particular value with the true value

**often depends on the quality of the measuring (calibration) instrument**

*the accepted value is predetermined*

Chapter 1


Certain digits

 

 

definite and will always be the same and are read directly from the instrument

Chapter 1


Uncertain digits

 

estimated and may vary

Chapter 1


Significant Figures

 

recorded digits from a measurement which include all of the digits that are certain and a last digit that is estimated

Chapter 1


When are we concerned with significant figures?

 

ONLY when dealing with measured quantities

NO counting numbers

NO equivalent statements

Chapter 1


What are the rules for determining the number of sig figs in a measurement? What are significant?

 

nonzero digits 1-9

captive zeros (205)

trailing zeros with a decimal (5,000.)

coefficients in scientific notation

Chapter 1


What is not significant when determining the number of sig figs in a measurement?

 

trailing zeros without a decimal

leading zeros (0.0003)

Chapter 1


A calculated answer can ______ be an better than the weakest piece of information used in determining it.

 

NEVER

Chapter 1


Density

 

a physical property of a pure substance that depends on the composition of the substance, not the amount

Chapter 1


What is the formula for Density?

 

Mass (g) / Volume (cm3 or mL)

** 1 cm3 = 1 mL**

Chapter 1


What does Density determine?

 

 

it determines if a material feels “light” or “heavy” and when it will float (it will float on a material that has a greater density)

Chapter 1


What are the units for Density?

 

g/cm3 or g/mL

Chapter 1


Percentage Error

 

a way for scientists to express how far off a laboratory value is from the commonly accepted value

Chapter 1


Laboratory Value

 

experimental value determined based on lab work

Chapter 1


Accepted Value

 

predetermined true value

Chapter 1


What is the formula for Percentage Error?

 

% Error = I Accepted- Experimental I x 100

Accepted value

Chapter 1


What are the 2 general concepts of Unit Conversion?

 

1) multiplying a quantity by one does not change the quantity

2) the same quantity (or unit) in both the numerator and denominator of the fraction will cancel

Chapter 1


Equality Statements

 

2 different values for the same amount in English metric

ex: Mass 453.6 = 1 lb.

 

Chapter 1


Conversion

 

to change

Chapter 1


What is the formula for Mass in Density?

 

M = D x V

Chapter 1


What is the formula for Volume in Density?

 

V = M / D

Chapter 1


What is the formula for the Volume of a cylinder?

 

pie x r2 x h =V

Chapter 1


Which factor is used for each task in conversion?

 

use the one that cancels the unit we do not want and leaves the unit we do want

Chapter 2


Democritus

 

Greek philosopher (400 B.C) stated matter was composed of small particles

Chapter 2


Leucippos

 

Greek Philosopher (400 B.C.) used the term “atomos” for particles

Chapter 2


Aristotle

 

Greek Philopsopher (400 B.C.) disagreed with Democritus and Leucippos and stated that matter was composed of 4 elements: wind (air), earth, fire, and water

Chapter 2


Even though Aristotle’s beliefs were _____ they were believed for almost _______ years

 

wrong

2000 years (1400’s-1500’s)

Chapter 2


Alchemists

 

tried turning regular substances into gold

provided valuable information on acids

Chapter 2


Antoine LaVoisier

 

 

(FATHER OF CHEMISTRY) (1743-1794)

explained combustion, supported and verified the Law of Conservation of Mass

Chapter 2


Law of Conservation of Mass

 

the total mass remains constant during a chemical reaction

Chapter 2


Joseph Proust

 

(1754-1826)

Law of Definite Proportions

Chapter 2


Law of Definite Proportions

 

(aka Law of Constant Composition) 

all samples of a compound have the same composition, that is, all samples have all the same proportions, by mass, of the elements present

Chapter 2


John Dalton

 

(1766-1844)

Law of Multiple Proportions

Atomic Theory

Chapter 2


Law of Multiple Proportions

 

in 2 or more compounds of the same 2 elements, the masses of 1 element that combine with a fixed mass of the 2nd element are in the ratio of small whole numbers

Chapter 2


What is the current model of the Atom?

 

 

small, densely packed nucleus which contains protons and neutrons; these subatomic particles provide the mass of the atom

the nucleus is then surrounded by electrons, electrons are not considered when calculating the mass of the atom

Chapter 2


Protons

 

charge = +

Chapter 2


Why are atoms considered Neutral?

 

 

+ charge = – charge

# protons = # electrons

Chapter 2


How is an element defined?

 

Atomic number (# protons)

*this remains constant for a given element*

Chapter 2


What do the number of protons of an element tell us?

 

it identifies the element on the periodic table (counting number) 

Chapter 2


How can the Mass of an Atom be determined?

 

# protons + # neutrons = MASS NUMBER

Chapter 2


Atomic Symbol

 

to express the atomic structure for a given type of atom

shows the atomic number (Z) and the mass number (a)

Chapter 2


Dalton’s Atomic Theory

1) Each element is made up of tiny, indivisible particles

2) Atoms of a given element are not always identical

3) Chemical compounds are formed when atoms of different elements combine with each other.  A given compound always has the same relative numbers + types of atoms. -Law of Definite Proportions

4) Chemical reacitons involve reorganization of the atoms- changes in the way they are bound together- the atoms themselves are not changed in a chemical reaction. – Law of Conservation of Mass

Chapter 2


Modifications to Dalton’s Atomic Theory

 

1) Atoms are not indivisible 

-made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons (sub-atomic)

2) Atoms of a given element are not always identical

-Isotopes cause variations (same # of protons dif # of neutrons)

Chapter 2


Atomic Mass

 

the mass of each individual isotope of each element is determined in comparison to this standard (carbon-12 as the standard at 12 amu) using a mass spectrometer

Chapter 2


Mass Number

 

#p + #n

specific to individual isotopes

structural

whole number

Chapter 2


What is different between Mass number and Atomic Mass?

 

weighted average

decimal

applies for ALL Isoptopes

elemental

percent abundance

Chapter 2


On the periodic table, the mass given for each element is the weighted average for _____ isotopes of that element.

 

ALL

Chapter 2


What 2 things do you need to know to solve Average Atomic Mass?

 

1) the relative mass for each isotope

2) the percentage occurance for each isotope

-the result is an averaged mass for all particles in a sample

Chapter 2


When is mole day?

 

6:02 am – 6:02 pm on October 23

Chapter 2


Dmitri Mendeleev

 

(1803-1895)

arranged elements using Atomic mass and physical/ chemical properties

predicted the existence of scandium, gallium, and germanium

Chapter 2


What are the 2 basic types of Elements?

 

 

Metals and Non-metals

Chapter 2


Metals

 

solids (except Hg)

conductors of heat and electricity

malleable and ductile 

lustrous

*tend to lose electrons to form IONS whith a positive charge called a CATION*

Chapter 2


Non-Metals

 

solids, liquids (Br) or Gases

nonconductors

brittle

non lustrous/ dull

*tend to gain electrons to form IONS with a negative charge called ANIONS*

Chapter 2


Metalloids

 

(semimetals)

elements display properties between metals and non-metals

*semiconductors*

Chapter 2


How is the Periodic Table organized?

 

In Periods and Groups

Chapter 2


Periods

 

 

horizontal rows

Chapter 2


Groups / Families

 

verticle columns

Chapter 2


Alkali Metals

 

IA

very reactive

+1 ion

Chapter 2


Alkaline-Earth Metals

 

IIA

reactive

+2 ions

 

Chapter 2


Halogens

 

Nonmetals

VII A

very reactive

-1 ion

exist as diatomic molecules

Chapter 2


Noble Gases

 

Nonmetals

VIII A 

UNREACTIVE

exist as monatomic gases

Chapter 2


Metalloids

 

form a stair-step division between metals and non-metals

Chapter 2


Transition Metals

 

can form more than one possible ion with a + charge

Chapter 2


Lanthanides and Actinides

 

 

radioactive and synthetic elements

A Groups: representative elements

B Groups: transition metals

Chapter 2


What kind of bond is formed between a metal and a nonmetal?

 

ionic bonds

Chapter 2


What kind of bond is formed between a nonmetal and a nonmetal?

 

covalent bond (molecular composition)

Chapter 2


How are covalent bonds formed?

 

when atoms share electrons

this structure results in a new particle: the molecule

Chapter 2


What are the Properties of Molecular Compounds?

 

solids, liquids, or gasses

generally low or very low melting points

variable boiling points

nonconductors

Chapter 2


What are the Diatomic Molecules in the Halogen group?

 

F2, Cl2, Br2, I2

Chapter 2


What are the Diatomic molecules in the Familiar Gasses group?

 

H2, N2, O2

Chapter 2


What are the Polyatomic Molecules?

 

P4, S8

Chapter 2


Ions

 

when atoms gain or lose electrons to form changed particles

Chapter 2


Anion

 

when a neutral atom gains an electron

has a negative charge

Chaper 2


Cation

 

when a neutral atom losses and electron

has a positive charge

Chapter 2


Crystal Lattice

 

the structure that results from the attraction between anions and cations form an ionic bond

Chapter 2


What are the Properties of Ionic Compounds?

occur only as solids

high melting points

very high boiling points

nonconductors as solids

can conduct electricity when melted or when dissolved in a solution

Chapter 2


What is the chemical nomenclature for covalent compounds?

 

when we name binary molecular compounds we use PREFIXES to specify how many atoms of each element are present

second element ends in -ide

Chapter 2


Chapter 2


What is the exception to chemical nomenclature of covalent compounds?

 

NO prefix is used when there is only one atom of the first element

Chapter 2


In Covalent Compounds (names-formulas) how do you determine the Formula?

 

use the prefixes to tell how many atoms of that element

Chapter 2


How do you determine the formula from the name of an Ionic Compound? (Names-Formulas)

determine the symbols/ formulas and charge

determine charges

use subscripts to balance the charges

NO CHARGES in final formula 

Chapter 2


Solve Names to Formulas Ionic Compounds

calcium chloride

ammonium nitrate

Magnesium hydroxide

 

CaCl —> CaCl2

NH4NO3 

Mg OH —> Mg(OH)2

Chapter 2


Hydrates

 

ionic compounds / salts that have water molecules as part of their solid crystalline structure (special category of ionic compounds

Chapter 2


Formula – Name Hydrates

CuSO4 x 5H2O

 

copper II sulfate pentahydrate 1:5

Chapter 2


There is always a definite ration for the hydrate which expresses:

 

 

1 formula unit for salt : # H2O molecules

Chapter 2


As a molecular metal :nonmetal how is hydrogen classified when it is the first element?

 

as an ACID

Chapter 2


As a ionic metal: nonmetal how is hydroxide (OH) classified when it is the first element?

 

as a BASE

Chapter 2


What is the Chemical Nomenclature of Acids and Bases?

Acids: (H is the first element) binary (H+ nonmetal)

uses prefix hydro-

for second element use ic- ending

Base: Ternary (H+ polyatomic ion)

NO HYDRO-

use root name of polyatomic ion and change -ate to -ic

change -ite to -ous

Chapter 19


Nuclide

 

a nucleus with a specified number of protons and neutrons and a specified energy

Chapter 19


Alpha Particle

 

(a) consists of 2 protons and 2 neutrons; it is identical to a doubly ionized helium ion He2+

Chapter 19


Beta Particle

 

 

(B) an electron, is emitted by the nucleus of certain radioactive atoms as they decay

Chapter 19


Gamma Rays

 

(Y) highly penatrating form of electromagnetic radiation

Chapter 19


Positrons

 

particles having the same mass as electrons by carrying a charge of 1+

Chapter 19


Electron Capture (neucleons)

 

a process in which the nucleus absorbs an electron from an inner electron shell (1 or 2) 

protons and neutrons collectively

Chapter 19


Half-Life

 

the time required for one-half of a statistically large numbr of radioactive material to decay due to transmutation/ radioactive decay

Chapter 2


Radioactive Decay Series

 

a series of radioactive decays beginning with a long lived radioactive nucleotide and ending with a non radioactive one

Chapter 19


Henri Becquerel 

 

(1852- 1908)

accidental discovery of energy given off naturally by uranium salts

Chapter 19


Marie Curie and Pierre Curie

 

worked with Becquerel and coined “radioactivity”

Chapter 19


Nuclear Reactions

 

nuclei undergo changes in order to go from an unstable isotope (radioisotope) to a stable isotope

large amounts of energy are involved

Chapter 19


Radioactive Decay

 

process in which the nucleus undergoes decomposition to form a different nucleus

Chapter 19


Radiation

 

energy/particles released in the process of radioactive decay

Chapter 19


How do you find Alpha decay?

 

subtact a He ion from the radioactive isotope

*conservation of nucleons*

Chapter 19


How do you find Beta Decay?

 

add an electron to the radioactive isotope

 

Chapter 19


How do you find Gamma Ray Decay?

 

high energy electromagnetic radiation

can be emitted by alpha or beta particles 

no particles of its own, it’s made of photons

no real change in the nucleus

(ATOMIC BOMB)

Chapter 19


Transmutation

 

process of changing one element to another due to radioactive decay

Chapter 19


Geiger Counter

 

 

a handheld device that is used to detect radioactive minerals and inspect equipment in nuclear and x-ray facilities

Chapter 19


Film Badge

 

a personal exposure monitoring device worn by individuals whose work exposes them to ionizing radiation.  badges are collected on a regular basis to check for levels of exposure

Chapter 19


Radiometric Dating

 

a technique used to date materials such as rocks in geologic time, remains from living organisms, and artifacts from past societies

Chapter 19


Radio Isotopes

 

used in medicine and research to tag atoms in molecules so that they can be traced and monitored in chemical reactions and metabolic pathways.  

Also used in diagnostic procedures such as PET and CT scans and in medical treatment of various cancers

(NUCLEAR MEDICINE)

Chapter 19


Fission

 

splitting atoms

nuclear reactions

Chapter 19


Fusion

 

combining atoms

ex:the sun

Chapter 3

 Mole

 

the number equal to the number of carbon atoms in exactly 12 grams of C-12

Chapter 3


Molar Mass

 

mass of 1 mole of an element or of a compound using element masses, given in the periodic table, expressed in grams

Chapter 3


Gram Atomic Mass

 

a sample of an element with a mass in grams equal to the element’s average atomic mass (from P.T) will contain 1 mole of atoms

Chapter 3


Gram Molecular Mass

Gram Formula Mass

 

compounds are defined by their chemical formula

we use the information to calculate the molar mass of a compound

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