


Discovered by E. Rutherford and Niels Bohr 


Dmitri Mendeleev arranged/organized first periodicity of elements 


Discovered by J. J. Thomson 


The study of matter, its properties, the changes that matter undergoes and the energy assosiated with those changes 


Anything that has mass and volume 


types and amounts of simpler substances that make up a sample of matter 


Characteristics that give each substance a unique identity 


Those that a substance shows without interaction with another substance ex: color, melting point, boiling point, and density 


Those that show once interacted with or transformed into another substance ex: flamability, corrosiveness 












Also known as Celcius (C*) 

Multiplication/Division Sig Figs 

Number of sig figs in the result equals the number in the least precise measurement used in the calculation 


Number of sig figs in the result depends on number of decimal places in least accurate measurement 


agreement between measured value and accepted value 


agreement between repeated measurements 


Number of Protons Also Number of Neutrons 


atoms of an element with same number of protons, but different number of neutrons 


1 mole = 6.022×10^23 particles 


The number of cycles the wave undergoes per second, expressed in units of 1/second = s^1 = Hz 


Distance between any point on a wave and the corresponding point on the next crest (or trough) of the wave ex: the distance the wave travels during 1 cycle 


The height of the crest or depth of the trough Also known as intensity 




c = (frequency)(wavelength) 


Highest Energy starting from the left ex: gamma rays Longest Wavelength starting from right ex: radio waves 


Developed Quantum Theory to descrive properties of light based on the idea the energy is absorbed and emitted in discrete quanta 




E = nhv where E is energy, h is planck’s constant, and v is the frequency 


the difference between each energy state is the (frequency)(planck’s constant) 


a photon of minimum E must be absorbed for an e to be freed. E depends on frequency 


symbol = O w/ vertical line through it *also equals (h)(v w/ 0 as subscript) minimum energy required to release e from metal surface 


KE = (hv) – (work function) 


discrete energy levels (looks like stair steps) 


smooth transition between levels (looks like a ramp) 


E of photon = (E of state a) – (E of state b) = hv Change in E = (E:final)(E:initial) Also = hv = hc/wavelength 


Increase = absorption (gain) of energy Decrease = emission (loss) of energy 


1/wavelength = R {1/n1^2 – 1/n2^2} where R is the Rydberg Constant (1.096776×10^7 m^1) 


E = mc^2 Combine w/ E = hv = hc/wavelength to get wavelength = h/mu where m is mass and u is speed 


wavelength = h/mc = h/p and p = h/wavelngth 


Describes motion of electron waves as they vary with location and time Wave function squared defines the orbital of high probability for locating an electron 
