Midterm

the study of matter and chages in matter best describes the science of
chemistry
chemistry may be least useful in studying
falling bodies
chemistry is
a physical science
chemistry is defines as the study of the compostion and structure of materials and
the changes in matter
study of all composition and structure of materials and the changes that materials undergo best describes the science of
chemistry
study of the composition and structure of materials and the changes that materials undergo best describes the science of
chemistry
chemistry may be most useful in studying
why materials corrode
the branch of chemistry that includes the study of materials and processes that occurring in living things is
biochemistry
the branch of chemistry that is concerned with the identification and composition of materials is
analytical chemistry
the study of substances containing carbon is
organic chemistry
organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, and physical chemistry are not
biological sciences
the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties, changes, and relationships between energy and matter is
physical chemistry
technology is the
application of scientific knowledge to solve problems
an example of technology is
the use of a new antibiotic to fight an infection
basic research is
carried out for the sake of increasing knowledge
applied research is
carried out to solve a problem
a physical property may be investigated by
melting ice
chemical properties include
changes that alter the identity of a substance
two features that distinguish matter are
mass and volume
one chemical property of matter is
reactivity
an example of an extensive physical property is
mass
which of the following is an intensive physical property: volume, length, color, or mass
color
a chemical change occurs when
a leaf changes color
the melting of candle wax is classified as a physical change because it
produces no new substance
an example of a chemical change is
milk going sour
a physical change occurs when a
glue gun melts a glue stick
the particles in a solid are
packed closely together
the state of matter in which a material is most likely to resist compression is the
solid state
the state of matter in which a material has definite shape and definite volume is the
solid state
the state of matter in which particles are rigidly held in fixed positions is the
solid state
a substance classified as a fluid contains particles that
may slide past each other
the state of matter in which a material has a definite volume but no definite shape is the
liquid state
under ordinary conditions of temperature and pressure, the particles in a gas are
very far from each other
a list of pure substances could include
vitamin C (absorbic acid)
the substances that are chemically bound together are
the elements that compose water
physical means can be used to separate
mixtures
the most useful source of chemical information about the elements is a
periodic table
a horizontal row of blocks in the periodic table is called a(n)
period
elements in a group in the periodic table can be expected to have similar
properties
a vertical column of blocks in the periodic table is called a(n)
group
the elements that border the zigzag line in the periodic table are
metalloids
the reason for organizing, analyzing, and classifying data is
to find relationships among the data
which of the following observations is quantitative: liquid turns blue litmus paper red; liquid boils at 100C; liquid tastes bitter; liquid is cloudy
liquid boils at 100C
quantitative observations are recorded using
numerical information
qualitative observations are recorded using
non-numerical information
a testable statement used for making predictions and carrying out further experiments is a
hypothesis
a plausible explanation of a body of observed natural phenomena is a scientific
theory
the validity of scientific concepts is evaluated by
testing hypotheses
a theory is an accepted explanation of an observed phenomenon until
repeated data and observation conflict with the theory
standards are chosen because they
are reproducible in another laboratory
a quantity does not have
measurement
all of the following describe measurement standards except: avoid ambiguity; must be unchanging; need not agree with a previously defined size; confusion eliminated when correct measurement applied
standard need not agree with a previously defined size
all of the following describe a unit except: unite compares what is being measured with a previously defined size; usually preceded by a number; usually is not important in finding a solution to a problem; or choice of unit depends on quantify being measured
a unit is usually not important in finding a solution to a problem
all of the following are examples of unites except: weight; kilometer; gram; teaspoon
weight
all but one of these units are SI base units: kilogram; second;liter; Kelvin
liter
the SI standard units for length and mass are
meter and kilogram
the metric unit for length that is closest to the thickness of a dime is the
millimeter
the symbol mm represents
millimeter
the symbols for units of length is order from smallest to largest are
mm, cm, m, km
the symbol for the metric unit used to measure mass is
g
the quantity of matter per unit volume is
density
a quantity that describes the concentration of matter is
density
the unit m3 measures
volume
the liter is defined as
1000 cm3
the standard unit for mass is the
kilogram
a volume of 1 cubic centimeter is equivalent to
1 milliliter
the symbol that represents the measured unit for volume is
mL.
the SI base unit for time is the
second
the unite abbreviation for time is
s.
the most appropriate SI unit for measuring the length of an automobile is the
meter
the SI base unit for length is the
meter
all of the following are SI units for density except: kb/m3; g/mL; g/cm3; g/m2
d/m2
a change in the force of Earth’s gravity on an object will affect its
weight
a measure of Earth’s gravitational pull on matter is
weight
a true statement about mass is that
mass is determined by comparing the mass of an object with a set of standard masses that are part of a balance
to determine density the quantities that must be measured are
volume and mass
the relationship between the mass m of a material, its volume V, and its density D is
DV = m
to calculate the density of an object,
divide its mass by its volume
when density is measured,
the temperature should be specified
which statement about density is true?
density is a physical property
the density of aluminum is 2.70 g/cm3. The volume of a solid piece of aluminum is 1.50 cm3. Find its mass.
4.05g
the mass of a 5.00cm3 sample of gold is 96.5 g. The density of gold is
19.3 g/cm3
what is the density of 37.72 g of matter whose volume is 6.80 cm3?
5.55 g/cm3
the density of sugar is 1.59 g/cm3. The mass of a sample is 4.0g. Find the volume of the sample.
2.5 cm3
the mass of a 5.00 cm3 sample of clay is 11g. what is the density of the clay?
2.2 g.cm3
the mass of a 6.0 mL sample of kerosene is 4.92 g. The density of kerosene is
0.82 g/mL
100 milliliters is equivalent to
1 deciliter
10 -2 meter is the same as
10 milliliters
0.25 g is equivalent to
250 mg
0.05 cm is the same as
0.5 mm
1.06 L of water is equivalent to
1060 mL
the number of grams equal to 0.5 kg is
500
30 degrees C equals
303.15K
convert -25 degrees C to the kelvin scale
248.15 K
how many minutes are in 1 week?
10,080 minutes
if 1 inch equals 2.54 cm, how many centimeters equal 1 yard?
91.4 cm
a measurement that closely agrees with accepted alues is said to be
accurate
a measurement is said to have good precision if it
agrees closely with other measurements of the same quantity
if some measurements agree closely but differ widely from the actual value, these measurements are
precise, but not accurate
poor precision in scientific measurement may arise from
both human error and the limitations of the measuring instrument
precision pertains to all of the following except: reproducibility of measurements; agreement among numerical values; sameness of measurements; closeness of a measurement to an accepted value
closeness of a measurement to an accepted value
these values were obtained as the mass of products from the same reaction: 8.83 g; 8.84 g; 8.82 g. The known mass of products from that reaction is 8.60 g. The values are
precise
five darts strike near the center of the target. Whoever threw the darts is
both accurate and precise
a chemist who frequently carries out a complex experiment is likely to have high
precision
when applied to scientific measurements, the words “accuracy” and “precision”
have distinctly different meanings
using the same balance, a chemist obtained the values 5.224 g, 5.235 g, and 5.25 g for the mass of a sample. These measurements have
poor precision
when determining the number of significant digits in a measurement,
all nonzero digits are significant
for numbers less than 0.1, such as 0.06, the zeros to the right of the decimal point but before the first nonzero digit
show the decimal place of the first digit
to two significant figures, the measurement 0.0255 g should be reported as
0.026 g
in division and multiplication, the answer must not have more significant figures than the
number in the calculation with fewest significant figures
a sum or difference of whole numbers should be rounded so that the final digit is in the same place as the
leftmost uncertain digit
the number of significant figures in the measurement 0.000 305 kg is
3
the number of significant figures in the measured value 0.003 20 g is
3
the measurement that has been expressed to three significant figures is
0.202 g
the number of significant figures in the measurement 170.040 km is
6
the measurement that has been expressed to four significant figures is
30.00 mm
the number of significant figures in the measurement 210 cm is
2
the measurement that has only nonsignificant zeros of the following: 0.0037 mL; 60.0 mL; 400. mL; or 506 mL
0.0037 mL
the number of these that has five significant figures: 23 410; 0.006 52; 0.017 83; 10.292
10.292
using a metric ruler with 1 mm divisions, you find the sides of a rectangular piece of plywood are 3.54 cm and 4.85 cm. You calculate that the area is 17.1690 cm2. To the correct number of significant figures, the result should be expressed as
17.2 cm2
when 64.4 is divided by 2.00, the correct number of significant figures in the result is
3
the dimensions of a rectangular solid are measured to be 1.27 cm, 1.3 cm, and 2.5 cm. The volume should be recorded as
4.1 cm3
three samples of 0.12g, 1.8 g, and 0.562 g are mixed together. The combined mass of all three samples, expressed to the correct number of significant figures, should be recorded as
2.5 g
divide 5.7 m by 2 m. The quotient is correctly reported as
3 m
the sum of 314. km and 32 km is correctly expressed as
347 km
the product of 13 cm and 5.7 cm is correctly reported as
74 cm2
round 1.245 633 501 x 10-8 to four significant figures
1.246 x 10-8 (to 8th power)
the correct number of significant figures that should appear in the answer to the calculation 3.475 x 1.97 + 2.4712 is
3
how may significant digits should be shown in the product of 1.6 cm and 2.4 cm?
2
written in scientific notation, the measurement of 9.000 065 cm is
6.5 x 10 -5 cm
the measurement of 0.020 L is the same as
2.0 x 10 -2 L
expressed in scientific notation, 0.0930 m is
9.30 x 10 -2 m
the speed of light is 300 000 km/s. In scientific notation, this speed is
3 x 10 5 km/s
the average distance between the Earth and the moon is 386 000 km. Expressed in scientific notation, this distance is
3.86 x 10 5 km
an analytical balance can measure mass to the nearest 1/10 000 of a gram, 0.0001 g. In scientific notation, the accuracy of the balance would be expressed as
1 x 10 -4 g
when 1.92 x 10 -6 kg is divided by 6.8 x 10 2 mL, the quotient in kg/mL equals
2.8 x 10 -9
when 6.02 x 10 23 is multiplied by 9.1 x 10 -31, the product is
5.5 x 10 -7
the capacity of a Florence flask is 250 mL. Its capacity in liters expressed in scientific notation is
2.5 x 10 01 L
if values for x and y vary as ian inverse proportion
their product is a constant
two variables are directly proportional if their ? has a constant value
quotient
the graph of a direct proportion is a(n)
straight line
two variables are inversely proportional if the ? has a constant value
product
the graph of an inverse proportion is a)n_
hyperbola
which of the following is not true: y is directly proportional to x; x is a variable; the product of y and x is a constant; or the graph of y versus x should be a straight line
the product of y and x is a constant
in the expression m = DV, where m is mass, D is density, and V is volume, density is the
constant
which of the following does not describe an inverse proportion between x and y: xy = k; x = k/y; y = k/x; k = ky
k = x/y
which of the following does not describe a direct proportion between x and y: xy = k; x/y = k; y/x = k; x = ky
xy = k
in the equation density = mass/volume, mass divided by volume as a constant ratio. This means that the
equation graphs as a straight line
law of conservation of mass
states that mass is neither destroyed nor created during ordinary chemical reactions or physical changes
law of multiple proportions
states that 2 or more different compounds are composed of the same 2 elements, then the ratio of the masses of the 2nd element combined with a certain mass of the 1st element is always a ratio of small whole numbers
atom
smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element
lse og frginiyr ptopotyiond
🙂 law of definite proportions
fact that a chemical compound contains the same elements in exactly the same proportions by mass regardless of the size of the sample or source of the compound
nuclear forces
short-range proton-neutron, proton-proton, and neutron-neutron forces hold the nuclear particles together
atomic mass unit
exactly 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom
atomic number
the number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of that element
isotopes
atoms of the same element that have different masses
mass number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an isotope
nuclids
general term for any isotope of any element
average atomic mass
weighted average of the atomic masses of the naturally occurring isotopes of an element
Avogadro’s number
6.022 x 10 23 is the number of particles in exactly 1 mole of a pure substance
molar mass
mass of 1 mole of a pure substance
mole
amount of a substance that contains as many particles as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12
contiguous spectrum
the emission of a contiguous range of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation
electromagnetic radiation
form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space
electromagnetic spectrum
all forms of electromagnetic radiation
excited state
state where an atom has a higher potential energy then it has at ground state
frequency
the number of waves that pass a given point in a specific time
ground state
lowest energy state of an atom
line-emission spectrum
when a narrow beam of emitted light was shined through a prism, it was separated into a series of specific frequencies of visible light
photoelectric effect
the emission of electrons from a metal when light shines on a metal
photon
a particle of electromagnetic radiation having zero mass and carrying a quantum of energy
quantum
the minimum quantity of energy that can be lost or gained by an atom
wavelength
the distance between corresponding points on adjacent waves
angular momentum quantum number
indicates the shape of the orbital “L”
Heisenberg uncertainty principle
states that it is impossible to determine simultaneously both the position and velocity of an electron or any other particle
magnetic quantum number
symbolized by m, indicates the orientation of an orbital around nucleus
orbital
a 3-dimensional region around the nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron
principal quantum number
symbolized by n. indicates the main energy level occupied by the electron
quantum numbers
specify the properties of atomic orbitals and the properties of electrons in orbitals
quantum theory
describes mathematically the wave properties of electrons and other very small particles
spin quantum number
has only 2 possible values that indicate the 2 fundamental spin states of an electron in an orbital
Auflau principle
an electron occupies the lowest-energy orbital that can receive it
electron configuration
arrangement of electrons in an atom
highest occupied level
the electron-containing main energy level with the highest principal quantum number
Hand’s rule
orbitals of equal energy are each occupied by 1 electron before any orbital is occupied by a second electron and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals must have the same spin
inner-shell electrons
electrons that are not in the highest occupied energy level
noble gases
the group 18 elements
noble-gas configuration
an outer main energy level fully occupied by usually 8 electrons
Pauli exclusion principle
no 2 electrons in the same atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers
x

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