Midterm Chemistry Review

Quantitative Observations
specific, describe sth in terms of numbers
Qualitative Observations
rather general, use words to describe an object or event
Scientific Method
a process of studying natural phenomena that involves making observations, forming laws and theories, and testing theories by experimentation.
Hypothesis
a possible explanation for the observation
Theory
a set of assumption put forth to explain some aspect of the observed behavior of matter
Natural Law
a statement that expresses generally observed behavior.
Units
Volume
Mass
Conversion Factor
the ratio. ex: 2.54cm/1inch
Equivalence Statement
ex: 2.54cm=1inch
Dimensional Analysis
changing one unit to another via conversion factors (base on the equivalent statement between the units)
Density
Specific Gravity
the ratio of the density of a given liquid to the density of water at 4dC.
density/density -> no units
Matter
any materials of the universe
State of Matter
solid, liquid, gas
Physical Properties
a characteristic of a substance that can change without the substance becoming different substance
Chemical Properties
the ability of a substance to change to a different substance
Physical Change
a change in the form of a substance, but not in its chemical nature; chemical bonds are not broken in a physical change
Chemical Change
the change of substances into other substances through a reorganization of the atoms; a chemical reaction
Element
a substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by chemical or physical means. it consists of atoms all having the same atomic number.
Compound
a substance with constant composition that can be broken down with elements by chemical processes.
Mixture
a material of variable composition of 2 or more substances
Pure Substance
a substance with constant composition
Homogeneous Mixture
a mixture that is the same through out, a solution
Heterogeneous Mixture
a mixture that has different properties in different regions of the mixture
Solution
a homogeneous mixture
Distillation
a method for separating the components of a liquid mixture that depends on differences on the ease of vaporization of the components
Filtration
a method for separating the components of a mixture containing a solid and a liquid.
Energy
the capacity to do work or to cause the flow of heat
Kinetic Energy
energy of motion
Potential Energy
energy of position
Calorie
a unit of measurement for energy; 1 calorie equal the quantity of energy required to heat 1 g of H2O by 1 degree
1cal = 4.184J
Joule
4.184J = 1cal
Specific Heat / Specific Heat Capacity
the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1g of a substance by 1 Celsius degree
Atom
fundamental unit of which elements are composed
Compound, formula
Proton
a positively charged particle in an atomic nucleus
Electron
a negatively charged particle that occupies the space around the nucleus of an atom
Neutron
a particle in the atomic nucleus with a mass approximately equal to that of the proton but with no charge
Isotopes
atom of the same element(the same number of protons) that have different number of neutrons. They have identical atomic numbers but different mass numbers.
Atomic Number
the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom, unique to each element
Mass Number
the total number of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus of an atom
Atomic Mass
Nuclear Symbol
includes Symbol, mass number, atomic number, charge (for cation or anion)
Hyphen Notation
[name of element] – [mass number]
Diatomic Molecules
a molecule composed of 2 atoms
Ions, cations, anions
an atom or a group of atoms that has a net positive or negative charge. cation(+) / anion(-)
Dalton’s Atomic Theory
1. Elements are made of tiny particles called atoms.
2. All atoms of a given element are identical.
3. The atoms of a given element are different from those of any other element.
4. Atoms of one element can combine with atoms of other elements to form compounds. A given compounds always has the same relative numbers and type of atoms.
5. Atoms are indivisible in chemical processes. That is, atoms are not created or destroyed in chemical reactions. A chemical reaction simply changes the way the atoms are grouped together.
Changes in Dalton’s Atomic Theory
2. Atoms ARE NOT identical ->isotopes
4. They ARE DIVISIBLE.
Particles and Equipments used by Thompson
Particles and Equipments used by Millikan
oil drop experiment – charge/mass/ratio of an electron
Particles and Equipments used by Rutherford
Gold foil experiment – gold foil, alpha particle
Particles and Equipments used by Chadwick
Atomic Notation
nuclear notation
Ionization Energy
the quantity of energy required to move an electron from a gaseous atom or ion
Electronegativity
a tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract shared electrons to itself
Atomic Radii (size)
increase: to the right, down.
Alkali Metals
group 1
Alkaline Earth Metals
group 2
Transition Metals
group 3 – 13
Lanthanides
series/group of 14 elements following lanthanum on the periodic table, in which the 4f orbitals are being filled
Actinides
series/group of 14 elements following actinium on the periodic table is which the 5f orbitals are being filled
Metals
an element that gives up electrons relatively easily and is typically lustrous, malleable and a good conductor of heat and electricity
Non-metals
an element that does not exhibit metallic characteristics. Chemically, a typical nonmetal accepts electrons from a metal.
Metalloid
semi metal, an element that has both metallic and nonmetallic properties
Noble Gases
last group on periodic table, consists of 8 elements
Group
vertical column of elements having the same electron configuration and similar chemical properties
Period
a horizontal row in the periodic table
Oxidation Number/State
a concept that provides a way to keep track of electron in oxidation-reduction reactions according to certain rules
Trends in Periodic Table
1. size: increases when go to the left and downward
2. electronegativity: increases when go to the right and upward
3. ionization energy: increases when go to the right and upward
==>reason: #’s of energy levels (left/right) and atomic number (up/down)
Reactant
Product
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