Modern Chemistry Chapter 15 Acids and Bases

What contains acetic acid?
Vinegar
What contains lactic acid?
sour milk
What does phosphoric acid do to many carbonated beverages?
It gives a tart flavor
What foods contain citric acid?
Lemons, oranges, grapefruits
What contains malic acid?
Apples
What contains tartaric acid?
Grapejuice
What is the common name for Sodium Hydroxide NaOH?
lye
Acids were first recognized as what?
a distinct class of compounds because of the common properties of their acqeous solutions.
What are the properties of an acid?
1. Acqeous solutions of acids have a sour taste.
2. Acids change the color of acid-base indicators.
3. Some acids react w/active metals to release hydrogen gas, H2.
4. Acuds react with bases to produce salts and water. (salt- the reaction products are water and an ionic compound called a salt).
5. Some acids conduct electric current.
6. Contains H30
What is a binary acid?
An acid that contains only two different elements: hydrogen and one of the more electronegative elements. ex: HF, HCl, HBr, and HI.
How do you name binary acids?
by using the Binary Acid Nomenclature:
1. THe name of a binary acid begins with the prefix, hydro-.
2. The root of the name of the second element follows this prefix.
3. The name that ends with the suffix -ic.
Ex: HF- Hyrdrofluoric acid, HCl-hydrochloric acid, HI- Hydroiodic acid, H2S- Hydrosulfuric acid
What is an oxyacid?
An acid that is a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and a third element, usually a nonmetal. Ex: HNO3 (nitric acid)
What kind of class does oxyacids belong to?
Ternary acids- which are acids that contain three different elements.
What does an oxyacid’s name depend on?
it is based on its anion
What are the five common industrial acids?
sulfuric acid, nitric acid, phosporic acid, hydrochloric acid, and acetic acid
What is the most commonly produced industrial chemical in the world? What are some uses of this acid? Why is this acid effective?
Sulfuric acid. It is used in large quantities in petroleum refining and metallurgy as well as in the manufacture of fertilizer. Production of metals, paper, paint, dyes. Because it attracts water, concentrated sulfuric acid is an effective dehydration (water removing) agent.
What is Nitric Acid? What is its characteristics? what is it used for? what happens when it is left standing?
it is a volatile, unstable liquid that is rarely used in industry or laboratories. Dissolving the acid in water provides stabilitu. It also turns proteins yellow. Use to make explosives, rubber, platics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Usually the solutions are colorless, but left standing, they become yellow because of slight decompisition to brown nitrogen dioxide gas.
Along w/nitrogen and potassium, Phosporus is what? What is phosphoric acid used for?
It is an essential element for plants and animals. Most of the phosporic acid produced each year is directly for manufacturing fertilizers and animal feed. Dilute p.acid has a pleasant but sour taste that is not toxic. It is used in flavoring agents in beverages. It is important in the manufacture of detergents and ceramics.
What is hydrochloric acid used for? Industrially? and what about its dilute solution?
HCl is produced by the stomack to aid digestion. Industrially, it is used for “pickling” (immerison of metals in a. solutions to remove surface impurities) iron and steel. It is used as a cleaning agent, food processing, activation of oil wells, recover Mg from sea water. The dilute solution is referred to as muriatic acid (found in hardware stores. to maintain the correct acidity in swimming pools)
What are some characteristics of acetic acid? What is its concetrated solution called? How does it get its name? How is it used?
Concentrated acetic acid is clear, colorless, pungent smelling liquid called glacial acetic acid. the name derives from the fact that pure acetic acid has freezing point of only 17C. IT can form crystals in a cold room. The fermentation of plants sometimes produce this acid. It is important industrially in synthesizing chemicals used in the manufacture of plastics. It is also used as a fungicide.
How do bases differ from acids? What are its characteristics?
1. Aqueous solutions of bases taste bitter.
2. Bases change the color of acid-base indicators.
3. Dilute acqeous solutions feel slippery.
4. Bases react with acids to produce salts and water.
5. Bases conduct electric current.
6. It contains OH
Who is Svante Arrhenius?
A Swedish chemist who lived from 1859-1927, understood that acqeous solutions of acids and bases conduct electric current. He came up w/the Arrhenius acids and bases.
What is an Arrhenius acid?
A chemical compound that increases the concentration of hydrogen ions. H+, in acqeous solutions. An acid will ionize in solution, increasing the number of hydrogens present.
What is an Arrhenius base?
a substance that increases the concentration of hydroxide ions OH-, in acqeous solutions. These bases dissociate in solution to release OH ions into the solutions.
What are all pure acqeous acids?
electrolytes
Why do acids form hydronium?
because acid molecules are polar, so that one or more hydrogen ions are attracted by ater molecules. Negatively charged anions are left behind.
Ex: HNO3 + H2O = H3O + NO3
What is a strong acid?
One that ionizes completely in acqeous solutions.
Ex: HCl (hydrochloric acid), HClO4 (perchloric acid), HNO3 (nitric acid).

Ex: H2SO4 + H2O = H3O + HSO4

What do strength of acids depend on?
the polarity of the bond between hydrogen and the element to which it is bonded and the ease with which that bond can be broken. Acid strength increases with increasing polarity and decreasing bond energy.
What are weak acids?
Acids that are weak electrolytes. The aqeous solution of weak acid contains hydronium ions, anions, and dissolved acid molecules.
Ex: Hydrocyanic acid (HCN)
Ex: HSO4 + H2O = H3O + SO4
What do organic acids contain?
the acidic carboxyl grou: COOH.
How many hydrogen atoms does a molecule of acetic acid contain? What is its characteristics?
contains four. Only one of the hydrogen atoms is ionizable. The hydrogen atom in the carboxyl group in acetic acid is the one that is acidic and forms the hydronium ion.
What are most bases?
They are ionic compounds containing metal cations and the OH anion. because these bases are ionic, they dissociate to some extent.
When a base completely dissociates in water to yiel aqueous OH- ions, the solution is referred to as…?
Alkaline.
Ex: Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is the common laboratory base.
NaOH – Na + OH
What other hydroxides form alkaline solutions?
Li, Na, K, Rb, and Cs
What is a base commonly used in household cleaners?
NH3. Ammonia is a base because it produces hydroxide ions when it reacts with water molecules.
What do the strength of bases depend on?
the extent to which the base dissociates, or adds hydroxide ions to the solutions.
Ex of strong base: KOH.
– Strong bases are strong electrolytes.
Ex: Ca(OH)2 = Ca + 2OH
Weak base: NH3 + H2O = NH4 + OH
What happens when a base is not very soluble?
They do not produce a large number of hydroxie ions when added to water. ex: Cu(OH)2.
What do the alkalinity of aqueous solutions depend on?
The concentration of OH ions in solution.
Who expanded the Arrhenius acid definition?
(1923) Danish chemist JN Bronsted and English chemist TM Lowry.
What is a Bronsted-Lowry acid?
A molecule or ion that is a proton donor. Like hydrogen chloride and water.
Ex: HCl + NH3 = NH4 + Cl
Ex: H2O + NH3 = NH4 + OH
What is a bronsted-lowry base?
a molecule or ion that is a proton acceptor. The arrhenius hydroxide base such as NaOH is not a bronsted-lowry base because its species cannot accept a proton.
What happens in a Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction?
protons are transferred from one reactant (the acid) to another (the base).
What is a monoprotic acid?
An acid that can donate only one proton (hydrogen ion) per molecule.
Ex: Perchloric acid (HClO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), and nitric acid (HNO3).
Ex: HCl + H2O = H3O + Cl
What is a polyprotic acid?
an acid that can donate more than one proton per molecule.
Ex: Sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4).
The ionization of polyprotic acid occur in what?
Stages
because an acid can only donate a hydrogen atom one at a time.
What is a diprotic acid?
can donate two protons per molecule.
Ex of ionization:(sulfuric acid)
H2SO4 + H20 = H30 + HSO4-
HSO4 + H20 = H30 + SO4 2-
What is a triprotic acid?
An acid able to donate three protons per molecule.
Ex: H3PO4 + H20 = H30 + H2PO4 –
H2PO4 + H20 = H30 + HPO4 2-
HPO4 + H20 = H30 + PO4 3-
Which stage of ionization is greatest concentration of ions formed with most polyprotic acids
the first
What is the third classifcation of acids and bases based on?
the bonding and structure. includes substances that do not contain hydrogen at all.
Who was GN Lewis?
The American chemist whose name was give to electron dot structures and famous for third classification.
What is a Lewis Acid?
An atom, ion, or molecule that accpets and electron pair to form a covalent bond.
which of the three acid definitions is the broadest? Explain.
The Lewis definition is the broadest of the 3 acid definitions. It applies to any species that can accept an electron pair to form a covalent bond iwht another species.
Ex: H + NH3 = NH4
Ag + 2NH3 = Ag(NH3)2
Any compound in which the central atom has 3 valence electrons and forms three covalent bonds can react as a ___? How does it do it?
Lewis acid. It odes so by accepting a pair of electrons to form a fourth covalent bond, completing an electron octet.
What is a Lewis base?
An atom, ion, or molecule that donates an electron pair to form a covalent bond.
Ex: BF3 + F = BF4
what is a Lewis acid-base reaction?
It is the formation of one or more covalent bonds between an electron pair donor and an electron pair acceptor.
The Bronsted-Lowry definitions of acids and bases provide a bases for ___?
studying proton transfer reaction.
What is the conjugate base?
the species that remains after a Bronsted-Lowry acid has given up a proton.
Ex: HF (acid) + H20 = F (conj b) + H30
What is the conjugate acid?
The species that is formed when a Bronsted-Lowry base gains a proton.
What is mean when it is siad that Bronsted-Lowry acid-base reaction are equilibrium system?
That both and forward reverse reactions occur. They involve two acid-base pairs, known as conjugate acid-base pairs.
HF (acid 1) + H20 (base 2) = F (base 1) + H30 (acid 2)
In every conjugate acid-base pair, the acid has __ more proton than its conjugate base.
one
The extent of the reaction between a bronsted-lowry acid and base depend on ___.
the relative strenghts of the acids and bases involved.
What is the relationship between the strength of an acid and that of its conjugate base?
the stronger an acid is, the weaker its conjugate base.
What is the relationship between the strength of a base and its conjugate acid?
the stronger a base is, the weaker its conjugate acid.
Proton-transfer reactions favor the production of ____.
weaker acid and weaker base.
A violent proton transfer reaction could result from ____.
bringing together a very strong acid and very strong base in certain proportions becaus the reaction has almost no tendency to go in the reverse direction.
What is amphoteric?
Any species that can react as either an acid or a base is described.
Ex: H2S04 (acid) + H20 = H30 = HS04.
NH3 + H20 = NH4 + 0H
Molecular compounds containing -OH groups can be ___ and ____.
Acidic or amphoteric
What is a hydroxyle group?
it is the covalently bonded OH group in an acid.
What needs to happen for the compound to be acidic?
a water molecule must be able to attract a hydrogen atom from a hydroxyl group.
Where are the small, more electronegative atoms of nonmetals located?
at the upper right in the periodic table. form compounds with acidic hydroxyl group.
The behavior of a compound is affected by the number of ___.
oxygen atoms bonded to the atom connected to the -OH group.
The larger the number of such oxygen atoms is ___
the more acidic the compound is likely to be.
An acid-base reaction occurs in aqueous solution between ____.
hydrochloric acid, a strong acid that completely dissociates to produce H30 and sodium hydroxide, a strong base that completely dissociates to produce OH.
What is neutralization?
The reaction of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions to form water molecules.
Water is not hte only product of a neutralization. A salt is also produced. What is a salt?
an ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid.
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