Modern Organic Chemistry I

CH4
Methane
C2H6
Ethane
C3H8
propane
C4H10
butane
C5H12
pentane
C6H14
hexane
C7H16
heptane
C8H18
octane
C9H20
nonane
C10H22
decane
CnH2n+2
General formula for alkanes
constitutional isomers
molecules with the same molecular formula but differing in how they are connected
CnH2n
general formula for cycloalkanes
Alkyl halides nomenclature
Named as parent alkane with halide as substituent
alcohol nomenclature
named as parent alkane with -ol ending
alcohol nomenclature
named as parent alkane with -ol ending
ether nomenclature
place “ether” at end of substituent names
amine nomenclature
add “amine” to end of substituent name
primary carbon
only one carbon attached to it
secondary carbon
two carbons attached to it
tertiary carbon
three carbons attached to it
sp3
hybridization of a tetrahedral molecule
sp2
hybridization of a trigonal planar molecule
sp
hybridization of a linear molecule
lewis acid
electron acceptor
lewis base
electron donor
conformations
the same molecule in different forms
staggered conformation
Hs are far apart
eclipsed conformation
Hs overlap
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