module 1-7

Solid
Of definite shape and volume; not liquid or gaseous
Liquid
The state of matter in which a substance exhibits a characteristic readiness to flow, little or no tendency to disperse, and relatively high incompressibility
Gas
The state of matter distinguished from the solid and liquid states by relatively low density and viscosity, relatively great expansion and contraction with changes in pressure and temperature, the ability to diffuse readily, and the spontaneous tendency to become distributed uniformly throughout any container.
Mixture
A mixture is what you get when you combine two substances in such a way that no chemical reaction occurs between the components and you can separate them again.
Pure Substance
a pure substance is any single type of material.
Atomic Number
It is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Alpha Radiation
have the highest ionizing power; since they carry the positive charge.
They also has a very high diffraction in the air.
They travel at 1/20th of the speed of light.
Beta Radiation
They can penetrate more than a piece of paper, though they generally stop penetrating after passing through an aluminium sheet. 
Beta rays have a moderate ionizing power, since they carry the negative charge. 
They have a moderate diffraction in the air.
They travel at almost the speed of light.
Gamma Radiation
They can penetrate at a larger area; and can be stopped by a thick lead block.
Gamma rays have almost no ionizing power, as they carry no charges.
Gamma rays travel at the speed of light.
Fission
splitting of a nucleus into smaller parts
Fusion
Nuclei combine to form a nucleus with a greater mass
Half Life
Amount of time it takes for half of a radioisotope to decay
Period
rows in the periodic table
Groups/Families
Columns in the periodic table
Alkali Metals
soft very reactive
Alkaline Earth Metals
Stronger, very reactive
Transition Metals
some dont react, colorful
Halogens
most active non metals
noble gases
stable, non reactive
Metalloids
have characteristics of metals and non metals.
Electronegativity
ability for an atom to attract electrons
Cation
positive ion
anion
negative ion
VSEPR theory
Valance Electron pairs repel eachother
Non Polar Bond
no partially charged regions so electrons are equally shared in bonds
Diople- Diople Forces
Occur between molecules with pereminent opposite charges.
Moles
Used because atoms and molecules are too small to measure.
Synthesis Reaction
A+B -> AB
Decompsition Reaction
AB -> A+B
Single Replacement Reaction
A + BX -> AX +B
Double Replacement Reaction
AB+ CD -> AD + BC
Stoichiometry
uses mole ratios from the balanced equation
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