Module 10: Acid/Base Chemistry

General properties of acids:

  • taste sour
  • covalent compounds that conduct electricity when added to water.
  • turn blue litmus paper red.

(319)

indicator
a substance that turns one color in the presence of acids and another color in the presence of bases (320)
General properties of bases:

  • taste bitter
  • are slippery to the touch when dissolved in water
  • turn red litmus paper blue

(320)

Chemical definition of acid:
A molecule that donates H+ ions (322)
Chemical definition of base:
A molecule that accepts H+ ions (322)
Proton donor
Another name for an acid: Acids donate H+ ions, which are protons. (322)
Proton acceptor
Another name for a base: Bases accept H+ ions, which are protons. (322)
hydronium ion
a water molecule with an extra hydrogen ion attached to it: H3O+ (323)
amphiprotic compounds
Compounds that can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the situation (324)
When ionic compounds dissolve, they:
split into their constituent ions. (325)
polyprotic acid
An acid that can donate more than one H+ ion. (329)
Triprotic acid
An acid that can donate three H+ ions. (329)
Diprotic acid
An acid that can donate two H+ ions. (329)

You can use the following general guideline to determine the products of an acid/base reaction:

ACID + BASE –> ________ + ___________

ACID + BASE –>    SALT    +   WATER  

 (330)

Neutralization reaction
A reaction between an acid and a base that neutralizes both, typically forming salt and water. (330)
Molarity (M)
A concentration unit that tells how many moles of a substance are in a liter of solution. It is determined by taking the number of moles of a substance and dividing by the number of liters of solution. (334)
Dilution
Adding water to a solution in order to decrease the concentration (337)
Dilution equation:

M1V1 = M2V2

(337)

When nummber of moles is divided by volume (in liters), you get__________.
Molarity (340)
When molarity is multiplied by volume (in liters), you get ___________________.
Number of moles (340)
Titration
The process of slowly reacting a base of unknown concentration with an acid of known concentration (or vice versa) until just enough acid has been added to react with all of the ase. This process determines the concentration of the unknown base (or acid). (341)
Endpoint of the titration
The point in a titration where the acid and base have completely reacted with one another. It is usually accompanied by an indicator’s change in color. (342)
Buret
Piece of laboratory glassware used (primarily for titration) to deliver solution in precisely-measured, variable volumes. Used to deliver one reactant until the precise end point of the reaction is reached. (345)
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