Module 11: The Chemistry of Solutions

solute
The substance being dissolved in order to make a solution. (353)
solvent
The substance in which the solute is being dissolved in order to make a solution. (353)
solution
The result of one or more solutes being dissolved in a solvent. (353)
insoluble
Unable to dissolve. (355)
Solubility
The maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in a given amount of solvent. (358)
The solubility of any solute depends on what two things?

  • identity of the solute
  • identity of the solvent

(359)

saturated solution
A solution in which the maximum amount of solute has been dissolved. (359)
precipitation
The process by which a solid solute leaves a solution and turns back into its solid phase. (360).
For solid solutes, solubility [increases/decreases] with increasing temperature.
increases (362)
The solubility of [solid/liquid] solutes is not affected by temperature.
liquid (362)
The solubility of gases [increases/decreases] with increasing temperature.
decreases (362)
Increasing pressure [increases/decreases] the solubility of gases.
increases (362)
Pressure does not affect the solubility of either _______ or _________.
liquids or solids. (362)
Exothermic process
A process that releases heat. (364)
Endothermic process
A process that absorbs heat. (364)
Molality
The number of molecules of solute per kilogram of solvent. (367)
Freezing-point depression
When a solute is dissolved in a solvent, the freezing point of the solution will be lower than that of the pure solvent. (370)
_____ is called the freezing-point depression constant.
Kf (371)
Boiling-point elevation
When a solute is dissolved in a solvent, the boiling point of the solution will be higher than that of the pure solvent. (374)
x

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