Module 14: Kinetics

Reaction rate
The rate of change of a product in a chemical reaction.
(459)
controlled experiment
Experiment in which one test is done under standard conditions, and all other tests are compared to those standard conditions.
(462)
control
The test done under standard conditions in a controlled experiment.
(462)
In order to react, chemicals must collide with one another so that their electrons can either be ____________ or ______________.
transferred or rearranged.
(463)
Why does higher temperature increase the chemical reaction rate?
Because the reactant molecules (or atoms) move faster, increasing the chance for a collision.
(463)
Why does decreasing the concentration also decrease the chemical reaction rate?
Because there are fewer reactant molecules (or atoms) to collide with one another.
(463)
When a solid object gets crushed, the molecules get spread out over a larger area. Chemists call this an increase in the ______________ of a reactant.
surface area
(463)
Increasing the surface area of a reactant increases reaction rate because:
the molecules (or atoms) of the reactant can more easily mingle with the molecules (or atoms) of the other reactants.
(463)

Rate equation:

 

R = k[A]x[B]y

Exponents in the rate equation are called

the ________ of the chemical reaction

with respect to

the ____________ they affect.

order,

reactant

(465)

Adding the exponents in the rate equation gives you:

the overall order of the chemical equation

(465)

When the rate of a chemical reaction

is unaffected by the concentration

of one of its reactants,

the exponent of the rate equation is ______ for that reactant.

zero

(471)

The reaction rate orders for a chemical reaction must be determined __________-ly.

They are [equal/not equal] to the stoichiometric coefficients in the chemical equation.

experimentally,

not equal

(474)

Instantaneous rate

The rate of change at a particular moment, calculated from rate equation.

(475)

Chemical reactions

never actually __________;

there will always be

some __________ left.

finish,

reactants

(476)

Since the rate constant [increases/decreases] dramatically

with increasing temperature,

the reaction rate does as well.

 

increases

(477)

The rate of many chemical reactions

doubles for every ______ increase

in temperature.

10° Celsius

(478)

catalyst

A substance that alters

the rate of a chemical reaction

without changing concentration throughout the course of the reaction.

(479)

Catalysts speed up the reaction rate

without actually ____________________

in the chemical reaction.

getting used up

(480)

Catalysts speed up reaction rates

by doing what?

Lowering the activation energy

of the reaction.

(481)

Heterogeneous catalysts

Catalysts that are in a different phase

than the reactants.

(481)

Homogeneous catalysts

Catalysts that have

the same phase as at least one

of the reactants.

(481)

Reaction mechanism

A series of chemical equations

that tells you the step-by-step process

by which a chemical reaction occurs.

(483)

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